Archive for the ‘Qur'an’ Category

Arabic – English – The Story of Adam and Satan (Iblis) – Shaikh Fawzaan

January 2, 2014

The story of Adam and Satan (Iblis) explained by Shaikh Fawzaan and translated.  Very beneficial:

 

http://mtws.posthaven.com/the-story-of-adam-and-iblis-by-shaykh-fawzan

 

 

Is Reciting the Quran with Tajweed Obligatory – Shaikh Fawzaan

December 2, 2013

 

The following was translated from:

http://www.ajurry.com/vb/showthread.php?t=17569

Arabic Text:

Tajweed Fawzaan


Question: Noble Shaikh – (we ask that) Allah grant you success – Is what is intended by “i’raab” of the Quran: reciting with tajweed or just the absence of grammatical errors which change the meanings? And is reciting with tajweed obligatory?

Answer (Shaikh Fawzaan): Reciting with “i’raab” of the Quran means: reciting it without linguistic, grammatical errors. This is “i’raab” of the Quran.

As for tajweed which is: Lengthening (vowels) and merging and what is similar to that from the rules of tajweed, then this is from beautifying and improving the recitation and pronunciation. It is not obligatory. It is only recommended (mustahabb), without exaggerations and without intensifications in the rulings of tajweed.

Tajweed and the rules of tajweed are from the things which beautify and improve (the recitation). Whoever learns them (the rules of tajweed) and pronounces them, then that is good. And whoever is ignorant of them, then there is no harm upon him with the condition that he recites the Quran without grammatical errors, not making marfoo’ what should be mansoob, or making mansoob what should be marfoo’, or making majroor what should be mansoob, or other than that.

So what is desired is: “I’raab” of the Quran – meaning: reciting it in Arabic without gramatical errors. As for beautifying the voice and improving the recitation and the tajweed, then these are mustahabb (recommended) and things which perfect (the recitation).

Reference: This fatwaa is quoted from Shaikh Fawzaan’s book Sharh Lum’atul I’tiqaad Guiding to the Path of Guidance, published by Daarul Imaam Ahmad

Reciting the Quran with Tajweed – Shaikh Albaanee

December 2, 2013

 

The follwing is a question posed to Shaikh Albaanee regarding the rulings of tajweed along with his answer. Taken from the book:

 

1000 Fatwas of Shaikh Albaanee (a collection of some of his fatwas)

Chapter (Kitaab): Tafseer of the Quran, Manners of Recitation, and Rulings of Tajweed

Section (Fasl): Rulings of Tajweed

 

Arabic Text:

Tajweed Albaanee

 

 

 

Question: There has been a lot of speech around here regarding the rulings of tajweed and using these rules, when there are some scholars who say it is obligatory, and along with that some of these rulings, the Imaams of this science have differed over them. So what is your opinion on the legislativeness of these rulings and the ranging in the solidity of its proofs from the Book and the Sunnah?

 

 

Answer (Shaikh Albaanee): Indeed people have received the recitation of the Noble Qur’an successively from those who preceeded upon this well-known path with ( the tajweed rulings). And the tajweed rulings are, at their foundation, principles for the pronunciation of Arabic, where the one who is Arab by lineage pronounces his speech in this way when speaking or reciting. And with the advancement of mankind (in time), the extension of their time with the fundamentals of the Arabic language, and the mixing of the Arabs with the non-Arabs are from the causes of the spread of grammatical mistakes. Along with the Arabs becoming un-Arabicized, due to the non-Arabs. Special care must be taken to teach these rulings in the area of reciting the Noble Quran.

 

 

As for what the questioner mentioned about the Imams differing in some of the rulings of tajweed – then this is really true. For some of them were of the opinion that the Madd Munfassal (hamzah followed by a letter of madd in two words) was unrestricted while some of them stretched it to 3 counts, and some four. Some of them lengthened the madd (elongation) of this type like (the madds) other than it (are lengthened). Some of them put (the letters) ghain and khaa with (the letters which have the ruling of) ikhfaa’ (hiding) of noon and tanween.

 

 

Some of them made ghain and khaa clear (ith-haar) – and these are the majority (who did so). Some of them made the idghaam (merging) of noon -all of it (with all the idghaam of noon letters) – to be without ghunnah – even wow and yaa. And they confined the ghunnah of idghaam to tanween until even including (the letters) laam and raa. Some of them did imaalah1 with the properties of yaa, while some of them decreased the imaalah and it is called “taqleel” to them. And there is a level of imaalah that is between fat-hah and imaalah. Some of them made ishmaam2in words where the middle root letter is yaa and which are mabnee3 and majhool4. Some of them made laam tafkheem (heavy) with some of the letters. Some of them made raa with fat-hah tarqeeq (light) when it is preceded by a yaa or a letter with kasrah. Some of them extend, meaning: lengthen, the madd of badal, etc.

 

 

And the cause for these differings is also due to following the rulings of pronunciation in Arabic. For these rules are spread out through the rulings of the recitations. And it is known that differing in the recitations is originally due to differing in the way of the pronunciation of the word with the Arabs. It is indeed from the easement of Allah – Exalted and Lofty is He – upon this ummah regarding His Book that He sent it down with seven dialects as has come in the authentic ahaadeeth which are mutawaatir5 regarding this topic. From them is his statement: ‘Indeed this Quran has been sent down upon seven dialects‘ Agreed upon. And other than it from dozens of ahaadeeth spread throughout all of the books of the Sunnah like Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, at-Tirmidhee, Abu Dawood, and other than them.

 

 

These dialects, as the Messenger (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) described them in another hadeeth when he said (translated): ‘The Quran was sent down in seven modes upon seven dialects, all of them are clear, definitive6, complete.7 So this differing that happens between the Imaams in the rules of tajweed is from this angle. This (particular) differing won’t ever harm anything.

 

 

It is upon a person to recite the Quran with the rules of tajweed, because Allah – The Most High – said (translated):

 

 

And recite the Qur’ân (aloud) in a slow, (pleasant tone and) style.‘ (Al-Muzzammil 73:4)8

 

 

So if you recite it as you read any other book, then you have not recited it with tarteel (as mentioned in the verse 73:4). So it must be recited with the rules of tajweed. The Scholars call a mistake in the rules of tajweed al-lahn al-khafee (the hidden error). So it is upon a person to make sure he learns how to recite the Quran in the correct way. As for when he knows of a differing in some ruling, then he must stick to what his Shuyookh taught him so that he doesn’t fall into chaos. And he shouldn’t leave the way that his Mashaayikh taught him believing that another way is more correct than it, because all of them (these revealed qiraa’at) are correct. And all of them are as the Messenger (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) described: ‘Clear, definitive, complete.’

 

 

As for seeking proof from the Quran and Sunnah for these rulings, then this seeking, at its foundation, is an error. Because all of these rulings reached us by tawaatur of action (see footnote #5). So we learned recitation of the Quran from our Shaikhs and our forefathers by this way, and they (those we learned from) learned (it) the same way from their Shaikhs and forefathers, and so on until the time of the Companions who took it from the Messenger (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam). This will suffice, and all the praise belongs only to Allaah firstly and lastly.

 

 

(End of the Shaikh’s Speech)

 

 

Also see this beneficial article:

http://sughayyirah.wordpress.com/2013/06/25/diversity-of-the-seven-different-recitations-of-the-quran/

 

 

Footnotes

 

 

 

1Imaalah – إمالةpronunciation of “a” shaded toward “e” (Hans Wehr, see ميل)

2Ishmaam – إشمامthe pronunciation of “u” with a trace of “i” (Hans Wehr, see شم)

3 Mabnee – Indeclinable – the ending doesnt change

4 Majhool Unknown – usually refering to the passive form of verbs – for example – فُتِحَ البَابُ - The door was opened (it is unknown who opened it)

5 Mutawaatir: Narrated by a large number of people

6شافٍ- definition taken from www.almaany.com

7كافٍ- definition taken from www.almaany.com

8 Translation of the verse taken from: http://thenoblequran.com/sps/nbq/

al Qaa’idah an Nooraniyah Program for Learning to Read the Quran

April 8, 2013

 

PDF file:

qaidaalnoorania

 

Audio program (Arabic):

http://www.tardeed.com/lesson.asp?LANG=1

 

Audio program (English):

http://www.tardeed.com/lesson.asp?LANG=2

 

 

 

Supplications from the the Qur’aan – Arabic Ayah, English Transliteration & Meaning

September 24, 2012

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2up-0Xdyv_8&list=UUivukqcikJvE8XdutZTGUnw&index=0&feature=plcp

 

 

The Quran is also what is written in the Mus-haf

August 29, 2012

The Quran is also what is written in the mus-haf.  Read the evidences from the file (e-book) which can be downloaded from this page:

 

http://www.bakkah.net/en/serious-errors-of-yusuf-estes-in-basic-muslim-creed.htm

 

starting at page 15 – The Basic Muslim Belief that the Quran is Written in Mushafs

Concise Principles in Tafseer and The Science of the Qur’aan (Part 6)

May 20, 2012

From: http://ah-sp.com/2011/09/15/concise-principles-in-tafseer-and-the-science-of-the-quraan-part-6/

 

Bismillah Wa Salaatu Wa Salaamu ‘Alaa Rasoolillah:

Ammaa b’ad:

Concerning the Preservation, Collection and compilation of the Qur’aan

As mentioned in that which has passed, the Qur’aan was revealed in accordance with occurrences and incidents that took place during the life of the messenger (saw) or that Allah choose to reveal it without there being an incident related to its revelation.

On occasions Allah revealed whole surahs at once, at others times parts of surahs and at other times parts of Ayahs.

Stages in the collection of the Qur’aan

The people of knowledge mention that there were three main stages in the collection of the qur’aan:

  1. The Era of the Messenger (Sallallahu Alaihi was Salam)

During this period the qur’aan, alongside being revealed was naturally being recorded by the companions of the messenger (Sallallahu alaihi was Salam).

The main method of preserving the Qur’aan in this period was through memory. The Arabs were well known for having exceptional memories and thus it was memorised by many in this period through this means. It was also preserved in writing during the life of the prophet (Sallallahu alahi was salam) on various material. It was preserved on Animal skins, bone, Date palm wood and animal shoulder.

The known memorisors and recitors of the qur’aan were many.

That which will bring clarity to this fact is the hadeeth of Anas ibn Maalik who said:

“The prophet (Sallallahu alahi was salam) sent seventy men who were known as ‘Al Qurraa’ (The proficient reciters of the qur’aan) upon a mission. They were confronted by the people of the tribes of Hayaan, Ra’l and dhakwaan (Tribes who had animosity with the messenger (Sallallahu alaihi wa salam) and were (all) killed…”

(Collected by Al Bukhaari 4088 and Muslim 1581)

On the basis of this incident the messenger supplicated against them in the dua of Qunoot for the period of a month

The Hadeeth establishes the fact that the memorisers of the qur’aan at the time of the messenger (Sallallahu alaihi wa salam) were many.

Imaam Abu Ubaid in his book ‘Al Qiraa’aat’ mentions some of the most popular of those who had memorised the quar’aan. From them we have the four caliphs of the messenger (Sallallahu alaihi was salam) and the likes of Abdullah ibn mas’ood, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abdullah ibn Abbaas, Abdullah ibn Zubair, Abdullah ibn al Amr’ ibnil Aas,  Saalim the freed slave of Abi Hudhaifa, Ubayy Ibn Ka’b, Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, Zaid ibn Thaabit and Abu Darda. Alongside Aisha, Hafsa and Umm Sala to name but a few.

  1. The period of Abu Bakr As Sideeq (Radhiyallahu ‘Anhu)

During the caliphate of Abu Bakr in the twelfth year after Hijra, Abu Bakr commissioned the second stage in the compilation and  preservation of the Qur’aan. The reason for his compilation was that which took place during the Battle of Yamaamah a large number of memorisers of the qur’aan were killed in battle. Abu Bakr, who was the khalifah at the time was concerned about the deaths of the proficient in the recitation of the qur’aan since it was not officially collected in one book at the time but either memorised in its totality or preserved in writing in various places

During this battle known as ‘the wars of apostacy’ against Musailima the great liar and false prophet, a great number of memorisers of the Qur’aan were killed (more than 400 in number) thus Abu Bakr in order to protect the qur’aan had it officially collected since at that time it was either preserved writing present in various places or it was preserved in totality in the chests of the believers. An explanation of this incident occurs in the following hadeeth in Saheeh Bukhaari. Zaid Ibn Thaabit (who was commissioned by Abu Bakr to undertake the task of collecting the Qur’aan, narrates the conversation he had with Abu Bakr in the presence of Umar, who had suggested to Abu Bakr that the Qur’aan should be collected, the incident occurs in the following hadeeth:

Narrated Zaid bin Thabit Al-Ansari, one of the scribes of the Revelation: Abu Bakr sent for me after the casualties among the warriors (of the battle) of Yamaama (where a great number of Qurra were killed). ‘Umar was in the presence of Abu Bakr, when he (Abu Bakr) said (to Zaid): “Umar has come to me and said, the People have suffered heavy casualties on the day of (the battle of) Yamama, and I am afraid that there will be some casualties among the Qurra (those who know the Qur’an by heart) elsewhere, whereby a large part of the Qur’an may be lost, unless you collect it. Thus I am of the opinion that you should collect the Qur’an.’ Abu Bakr added, ‘I said to ‘Umar, “How can I do something which Allah’s Apostle has not done?” ‘Umar said (to me) “By Allah, it is a good thing”. So ‘Umar kept on pressing trying to persuade me to accept his proposal, till Allah opened my bosom for it and I had the same opinion as ‘Umar’. (Zaid bin Thaabit added:) ‘Umar was sitting with him (Abu Bakr) and was not speaking. Abu Bakr said (to me), ‘You are a wise young man and we do not suspect you (of telling lies or of forgetfulness); and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah’s Apostle. Therefore, look for the Qur’aan and collect it (in one manuscript)’. By Allah, if he (Abu Bakr) had ordered me to shift one of the mountains (from its place) it would not have been harder for me than what he had ordered me concerning the collection of the Qur’an. I said to both of them, ‘How will you carry out a thing which the Prophet has not done?’ Abu Bakr said, ‘By Allah, it is a good thing. So I continued discussing with him about it till Allah opened my bosom for that which He had opened the bosoms of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. So I started locating the Quranic material and collecting it from parchments, scapula, leafstalks of date palms and from the memories of men (who knew it by heart). I found with Khuzaima two verses of Suraat-at-Tauba which I had not found with anybody else (and they were):

‘Verily there has come to you an Apostle (Muhammad) from among yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He (Muhammad) is ardently anxious over you (to be rightly guided)’ (9:128).

The manuscript on which the Qur’an was collected, remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him, and then with ‘Umar till Allah took him unto Him, and finally it remained with Hafsa, ‘Umar’s daughter.

(Collected by Imaam Al Bukhaari in his ‘Saheeh’ 4679)

This ordering of the collection and compilation of the Qur’aan carried out by Abu Bakr is mentioned as being from the greatest of his virtues.

  1. The compilation of the Third Caliph Uthmaan

The Qur’aan, as is established in authentic hadeeth, was revealed in seven ‘Ahruf’ (different Arabic dialects). The revelation of the qur’aan in these dialects was to accommodate the various dialect of the Arab tribes in the region at that time. During the time of Uthmaan there occurred differing over the modes of recitation. This differing led to a big trial among the muslims and to fighting and bloodshed.

Thus trial was what lead to the third stage in the Compilation of the Qur’aan.

Narrated Anas bin Malik: Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman came to ‘Uthmaan at the time when the people of Sham and the people of Iraq were waging war to conquer Arminya and Adharbijan. Hudhaifa was afraid of their (the people of Sham and Iraq) differences in the recitation of the Qur’an, so he said to ‘Uthmaan, ‘O chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the Book (Qur’an), as Jews and the Christians have differed (before)’. So ‘Uthmaan sent a message to Hafsa saying, ‘Send us the manuscripts of the Qur’an so that we mayncompile the Qur’anic materials in perfect copies and return the manuscripts to you’. Hafsa sent it to ‘Uthmaan. ‘Uthmaan then ordered Zaid bin Thaabit, ‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair, Sa’eed bin Al-’Aas and ‘Abdur Rahman bin Haarith bin Hishaam to copy the manuscripts in perfect copies. ‘Uthmaan said to the three Quraishi men (the three other than Zaid ibn Thaabit), ‘If you disagree with Zaid bin Thaabit on any point in the Qur’an, then write it in the dialect of Quraish as the Qur’an was revealed in their tongue’. They did so, and when they had written copies, ‘Uthman returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. ‘Uthmaan sent to every Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all the other Qur’anic materials whether written in fragmentary manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt. Zaid bin Thaabit added, ‘i could not find a verse from Sura al-Ahzab when we copied the Qur’an which I used to hear Allah’s Apostle reciting. So we searched and found it with Khuzaima bin Thaabit Al-Ansaari’. (That verse was): ‘Among the Believers are men who have been true in their covenant with Allah’ (33: 23).

Thus we see the difference between the collection of Abu Bakr and the collection of Uthmaan is that the compilation of Abu Bakr was done with the intent of gathering the parts of the Qur’aan that where preserved in writing with the companions into one official book, while the collection of Uthmaan was to establish a standardised Qur’aan that the people would unite upon and not differ about.

(Collected by Imaamul Bukhaari in his ‘Saheeh’ 4702)

Thus the three stages are in summary:

1. Memorisation and preservation (During the Era of the Messenger (Sallallahu ‘alaihi was salam)

2. Collection and compilation (During the Era of Abu Bakr As Sideeq – Radhiyallahu ‘Anhu)

3. Standardisation (During the Era of Uthmaan – Radhiyallahu ‘Anhu)

Wa Billahit Tawfeeq

Tajweed Rules

May 20, 2012

http://quran.al-islam.com/Loader.aspx?pageid=740

(click on View, Encoding, More, Unicode to see Arabic )

Concise Principles in Tafseer and the science of the Qur’aan (Part 5)

May 20, 2012

From: http://ah-sp.com/2011/08/25/concise-principles-in-tafseer-and-the-science-of-the-quraan-part-5/

 

Bismillah Was Salaatu Was Salaamu ‘Alaa rasoolillahi,

Ammaa Ba’d,

The origin concerning the revelation of verses in the qur’aan is that its verses were revealed once.

Though it may occur in relation to verses in the Qur’aan (and surahs for that matter) that have more than one reason for revelation, that if the two reasons for revelation are authentic and there is a clear distance in time, as it relates to the two incidents (i.e. that one verse was revealed when the messenger (Sallallahu ‘alahi was Sallam) was living in Makka and the other while he was resident in Madina after the Hijra) the scholars rule that the verse was revealed twice.

The reason for that (they mention) is in order to re-affirm a past ruling and to affirm that the (new) incident falls within the meaning of the verse.

Imaam Zarkashi Mentions:

“An affair may be revealed twice in order to fortify its importance, and to remind of it when its reason re-occurs, fearing it may be forgotten. This is what has been said concerning the revelation of Suratul Faatihah, that it was revealed twice, once in Makka and a second time in Madina…”

(Al Burhaan 1/29)

An example of this is that which occurs concerning the statement of Allah the most high:

“Alif Laam Meem.  The Romans have been defeated…(Suratur Room 1-4)

Upon the authority of Niyaar ibn Mukrim who said:

When Allah revealed:

Alif Laam Meem. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land (the region of Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine) and they, after their defeat will be victorious. Within three to nine years.

When this verse was revealed, the Persians had overpowered the Romans. The Muslims wished that they (The Romans) overpowered the Persians due to the fact that they were both people of the book (i.e. The Muslims and the Roman Christians). Concerning this there occurs the statement of Allah:

“And on that day the believers (Muslims) will rejoice with the help of Allah. He helps whom he wills and he is the All Mighty the Mercy-giver”

But Quraish wished that the Persians were victorious since neither of them were people of scripture or belief in the resurrection.

So when Allah revealed this verse, Abu Bakr went out to regions of Makka shouting:

The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land (the region of Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine) and they after their defeat will be victorious. Within three to nine years…”

So a group from the tribe of Quraish said:”Let us deal with this between us.  Your companion (Muhammad) claims that the Romans will defeat the Persians in a number of years between three and nine, Come let us make a bet upon that! So Abu Bakr said: “Ok!” and this was before the prohibition of Gambling. So Abu Bakr agreed with them to make a bet. They said let us agree upon a time period because Bid’ (the Arabic term used in the verse) is an amount between three and nine so let us name a year that we bet upon. So they agreed upon the sixth year, since it was a middle period between the two periods. So six years passed and they (The Romans) were not victorious. So the pagans took the amount Abu Bakr had placed upon the bet (some narrations mention it was 100 camels) some of the believers reproached Abu Bakr for what he had done, due to the fact that Allah had mentioned (this will occur in) Bid’ years (which refers to a number between three and nine). Then on the seventh year the Romans gained victory over the Persians and many people entered Islaam because of this” (Collected by Tirmidhi 3194 and declared: Hasan by Sheikh Al Albaani)

There is a narration that indicates that the verse was revealed again in Madina

Imaam At Tirmidhi collects upon the authority of Abu Sa’eed Al khudhri (Radhiyallahu ‘anhu): ”During the (period of) battle of Badr, the romans defeated the Persians (in battle). The believers were happy about this and Allah revealed:

Alif Laam Meem. The Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land (the region of Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine) and they, after their defeat will be victorious. Within three to nine years. The decision of the matter, before (the defeat) and after (the defeat) is only with Allah. And on that day the believers (Muslims) will rejoice”

(Suratur Ruum 1-4)

So the believers were happy at the victory of the Romans over the Persians” This then is an example of a verse being revealed more than once. The verse was revealed in Makka before the Hijra then again in Madina some seven years later Another example of that is the hadeeth related to the revelation of the verse in suratul Israa Vs 85:

They ask you about the soul…

Imaam Bukhaari (7297) and Muslim (2794) collected upon the authority of Ibn Mas’ood who said:

I was walking with the Messenger (Sallallahu ‘Alahi was Sallam) (on an occasion) in the agricultural (area) in madina and he was reclining upon a palm branch stripped of its leaves. He passed by a group of Jews and some of them said: why not ask him (a question) while others among them said: Don’t ask him (anything) for you will hear from him what you will dislike: So they said: “Oh Abul Qaasim: Inform us about the soul? So the messenger stood for a period and raised his head to the heavens and I knew he was receiving revelation then when it passed over he said:

They ask you about the soul; say The Rooh (soul) is (from those things) the knowledge of which is with my lord and of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little” (Israa:85)

Imaam Ibn Katheer mentions about this Hadeeth:

That which is apparent from this wording and is initially taken from this is that the verse is Madinan and that it was revealed when the Jews asked him this question in Madina, though (the reality is that) the surah in its totality is Makkan. And the explanation of this is that it is possible that the surah was revealed in Madina a second time after its initial revelation in Makka…”

(Tafseer Ibn Katheer 3/60)

A note concerning the Makkan and Madinan Surahs

What should be noted here is that there is a common misconception about Makki (Makkan)and Madani (Madinan) Surahs. Many people erroneously believe that the Makkan surah is that which came to the messenger when he was in makka and that the Madani surah is that which was revealed upon him in Madina.

That which the scholars (Ibn Katheer  and others)mention is that the Makkan surah is that surah which was revealed before the Hijra (even if some of its verses were revealed in Madina) and that the Madani Surah is that surah that was revealed after hijra (even if some of its verse were revealed in Makka)

Wallahu a’lam

Concise Principles in Tafseer and The Science of the Qur’aan (Part 4)

May 20, 2012

From: http://ah-sp.com/2011/08/25/concise-principles-in-tafseer-and-the-science-of-the-quraan-part-4/

 

Concise benefits in Tafseer and The Science of the Qur’aan (4)

Bismillah was salaatu was salaamu ‘alaa Rasoolillah

2. It may also occur that one verse may have more than one known authentic sababun nuzool (reason for revelation)

An example of this is that which has occurred concerning the reason for the revelation of the statement of Allah:

“O Prophet! Why do you ban for yourself that which Allah has made lawful for you, seeking to please your wives? And Allah is of forgiving most merciful”

(Suratut Tahreem Vs 1)

Concerning the reason for its revelation there has occurred the following hadeeth:

Upon the authority of Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) who said:

The Messenger of Allah (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa salam) used to consume a drink (made) of honey in the house of zainab bint Jahsh (May Allah be pleased with her) then he would spend time with her. So Hafsah and I agreed that if he came to anyone of us (after being with her) that we would say ‘Have you eaten ‘Maghaafeer’ (the gum of a particular tree, that is sweet to taste but is has a foul smell and is also known to be intoxicating)?’ For indeed I smell upon you the fragrance of Maghaafeer. So he responded no! but I did drink honey with Zainab. I have now sworn (By Allah I will not return to it) so do not inform anyone about this”

(Agreed upon by both Imaamul Bukhaari in his ‘Saheeh’ (4912) an Imaam Muslim in his ‘Saheeh’ (1474))

The scholars mention that the messenger (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam) did so due to his dislike of foul smells, particularly one that resembled an intoxicant.

There has also occurred another authentic narration concerning the reason for revelation of the verse that mentions:

Upon the authority of Anas ibn Maalik who mentioned that the messenger of Allah (Sallallahu alaihi wa salam) used to have a bondswoman that he would have relations with (a reference to Maariyah the mother of the son of the messenger of Allah Ibraaheem). Aisha and hafsa did not cease addressing him concerning her until he made her haram upon himself so Allah revealed:

“O Prophet! Why do you ban for yourself that which Allah has made lawful for you, seeking to please your wives? And Allah is of forgiving most merciful”

(Suratut Tahreem Vs 1)

(Sunan An Nasaa’ie 7/71,72)

And in the narration of Umar about the occurrence he states:

“The Prophet (Sallallahu ‘Alaihi was Salam) said to Hafsa “Do not inform anyone but indeed the mother of Ibraahim is haram upon me” so she (Hafsah) said to him “will you make haram (upon yourself) what Allah has made permissible?” he said “By Allah I will not approach her” thereonafter he did not appraoch her, so she (Hafsah) informed Aisha then Allah revealed: “Allah has already ordained for you (O men) the dissolution of your oaths (i.e the permissibility of doing so if one see that which is better, with the condition that one carries out the expiation for breaking the oath)…”

(Suratut Tahreem Vs 2)

Another example of this is that which has occurs concerning the reason for revelation of the verse:

“For those who accuse their wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let the testimony of one of them be four testimonies (i.e. He testifies four times) by Allah that he is one of those who speak the truth. And the fifth testimony should be invoking the curse of Allah upon himself if he be of those who tell a lie (against her). But it shall avert the punishment (of stoning to death) from her, if she bears witness four times by Allah, that he is telling a lie and the fifth (testimony) should be that the wrath of Allah be upon her is he (her husband) speaks the truth.”

(Suratun Nur Vs 6-10)

It occurs in a hadeeth collected by Imaamul Bukhaari in his saheeh (3735) from the hadeeth of sahl ibn s’ad who said:

“Indeed ‘Uwaimir (Ibn Abi Abyadh al ‘Ajlaani) approached Aasim ibn Adi and said: “What would you say about a man that finds a man with his wife, does he kill him and thus be killed (for his murder) or what does he do? Ask the messenger of Allah about this on my behalf. So Aasim went to the messenger and he said oh messenger of Allah (and mentioned the issue) but the messenger disliked the issue. So Uwaimir asked him (Aasim) about it and he responded by saying “indeed the messenger of Allah disliked the Issue and dispraised it” so he said “Inded I shall not settle until I ask the messenger of Allah about that (myself)” so he approached the messenger and said “O messenger of Allah! Someone finds a man with his wife, (i.e. having relations) does he kill the man and then be killed (for his murder) or what should he do. So the messenger said “Indeed Allah has revealed (verses from the) Qur’aan concerning you and your wife..” We see here how the knowledge of the Asbaabun nuzool helps to repel common misconceptions, from them the misconception that stoning is an Islamic punishment prescribed for women only, and then the likes of this verse is quoted. We understand that the verse was revealed in relation to a specific occurrence and does not indicate in any way that concentration with Islamic punishments is upon women alone.

Yet another narration indicates that the verse was revealed concerning a different incident.

Upon the authority of ibn ‘Abaas who said that Hilaal ibn Umayah accused his wife of committing adultery with Shareek ibn Sahmaa So the messenger (Sallallahu alaihi wa salam) said:

” (Establish the) evidence otherwise your back will be punished (i.e you will be flogged for falsely accusing a chaste woman) so he said “Oh messenger of Allah! if one of us sees a man on top of his wife in the middle of the act does he still have to establish the proof?! So the messenger continued to say: “(establish the) proof or your back will be punished” so Umayah said: “By he who sent you with the truth, I am being truthful and Allah will reveal that which frees my back from punishment. Then Jibreel descended and revealed upon him:

“For those who accuse their wives..” to the end of the hadeeth

(Collected by Bukhaari in his ‘Saheeh’ Hadeeth 4747)

This again establishes the point that one ayah may have more than one reason for revelation

Wallahu a’lam

 


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