Marfoo’ Mansoob Majroor Majzoom

A word (اسم ) may be in one of three states/cases

مَرْفُوْعٌ

مَنْصُوْبٌ

مَجْرُوْرٌ

When a word is marfoo’, this means it is in its normal state and nothing has acted upon it to cause its ending to change. The sign of a word being marfoo’ is generally dammah (although for the dual, the sign of it being marfoo’ is انِ [aan]- which changes to يْنِ [ayn] in both the states of majroor and mansoob; and also the sign of the sound masculine plural being marfoo’ is ون [oon] which changes to ين [een] when in both states of majroor and mansoob)  :

In singular words, the sign of marfoo’

is dammah or dammataan (two dammahs).  Some examples:

الكَلْبُ صَغِيْرٌ

The dog is small.

الدَّفْتَرُ مُلَوَّنٌ

The notebook is colorful.

المَطْعَمُ بَعِيْدٌ

The restaurant is far.

In dual words, the sign of marfoo’ is alif noon ( ان ).  Some examples:

الوَلَدَانِ سَعِيْدَانِ

The two boys are happy.

السَّيَارَتَانِ جَمِيْلَتَانِ

The two cars are beautiful.

القِرْدَانِ بُنِيَّانِ

The two monkeys are brown.

In plural words, the sign of marfoo‘ may be

wow noon ( ون ) or dammah, or dammataan.

Some examples:

الأَطِبَّاءُ مُسْتَعْجِلُوْنَ

The doctors are in a hurry.

المُدَرِّسُوْنَ طِوَالٌ

The teachers are tall.

المُهَنْدِسُوْنَ فَرِحُوْنَ

The engineers are pleased.

الضُّيُوْفُ كِبَارٌ

The guests are old.

The endings of all the above are marfoo’

A word can become mansoob for several reasons (it may be the maf’ool bihi-the thing the action is done to [direct object], or it may be the subject in a sentence with inna and its sisters, or it may be the predicate in a sentence of kaana and its sisters, or it could be a tharf word (adverb), etc [all the reasons a word becomes mansoob are listed approximately 2/3 of the way through lesson 1 in Madinah Book 3

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du3_2.htm  ])

The sign of a word being mansoob  in singular words is that its ending has a fat-hah (or fat-hataan). Examples:

أَطْعَمَت الكَلْبَ

She fed the dog.

أَخَذَتْ الدَّفْتَرَ

She took the notebook.

رَأَى مَطْعَمًا

He saw a restaurant.

In dual, the sign of mansoob is ين (yaa + noon), preceded by fat-hah, which makes the sound ‘ayn’.  Some examples:

رَأَى وَلَدَيْنِ

He saw two boys.

 

اِشْتَرَى سَيَارَتَيْنِ

He bought two cars

أَرَادَتْ قِرْدَيْنِ

She wanted two monkeys.

In plural words, the sign of mansoob is yaa + noon preceded by a kasrah (“een” sound), or (if the plural word ends in dammah or dammataan then) the sign of its being mansoob is fat-hah or fat-hataan.  Some Examples:

رَأَى المُدَرِّسِيْنَ

He saw the teachers

أَحَبَّ المُسْلِمِيْنَ

He loved the Muslims

أَكْرَمَ ضُيُوْفًا

He honored some guests.

لَامَ الأَطِبَّاءَ

He blamed the doctors.

All of the above endings are mansoob. Note how the ending for the sound masculine plural is een whereas the ending for dual is ayn.

(An exception to this rule is the sound feminine plural. It shows that it is mansoob by taking a kasrah or kasrataan and not fat-hah. Ex:

يَتْلُوْ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا “Reciting to them Our Verses” 2:151 from the Qur’an.

So Aayaati has a kasrah and not a fat-hah, even though it is in a state of being mansoob. It is important to note that “Our” does not mean that Allah (God, The Creator) is more than One, or that He can be divided into parts (He is indivisible-112:1). There are two types of plurals in Arabic – the plural of plurality (more than one) and the plural of greatness. So this is the plural of greatness and exaltedness-and of course this is not a true plural. Many other languages also use two plurals. For example, in French. When a person meets someone they don’t know and who is not a peer, they say “Comment-allez vous?” Which means – “How are you (plural)?”. Likewise, the Queen of England may say “we” in reference to only herself. )

Generally, the sign of a word being majroor is that the ending changes to kasrah. A word will become majroor when one of the particles of jarr comes before it (see Madinah Book 1, ch.4

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du1_4.htm   ), or when it is the owner/possessor in the idaafah construction (see Madinah Book 1, ch.5

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du1_5.htm   ). A word will also take kasrah when a tharful makan word (adverb of place) comes before it (like فَوْقَ، تَحْتَ، وَرَاءَ، خَلْفَ، أمَامَ،جَانِبَ، عِنْدَ، etc), although it is not called majroor in this case. Ex:

الكَلِمَةُ مِن الكِتَابِ The word is from the book.

الكَلِمَاتُ مِن الكِتَابَيْنِ The words are from the two books.

الكتابُ من المُسْلِمِيْنَ The book is from the Muslims.

So in the above examples, the words are majroor due to one of the particles of jarr (من ) being in front of them. An exception to this are mamnoo’ min as-sarf words. When they are in a state of being majroor, they take a fat-hah in stead of a kasrah (see Madinah Book 1, ch. 22 

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du1_22.htm   ).

Also see the chart here

Words (أسماء ) can not be in a state of majzoom – this is a state verbs are in.

A verb (فِعْل ) can be in one of three states:

مرفوع

منصوب

مَجْزُوْم

A verb cannot be majroor. Only present tense verbs can change from their normal state of marfoo’ to mansoob or majzoom. Past tense verbs are mabnee-they do not change their endings.

When a verb is mansoob, that means that the singular conjugations that end in dammah change to fat-hah, that the masculine plurals lose their noons, and that the 2nd person feminine singular also loses its noon. The feminine plurals do not change. A verb may change to mansoob due to one of the following particles coming in front of it – لِ، لِكَيْ، لِكَيْلا، أنْ، لِئَلَّا، لَنْ

An example of لئَلّا is in 2:150 in the Qur’an

An example of لِكَيْلا is in 3:153

Meanings:

لِ so that

لِكَيْ so that

لِكَيْ + لا = لِكَيْلا so that….not Ex. – لكيلا تَحْزَنُوا So that you will not be sad

أنْ that, to Ex: أرِيْدُ أنْ أذْهَبَ I want to go

ل + أنْ + لا = لِئَلّا so that…not

لَنْ negation for the future

When a verb is majzoom, that means that the singular conjugations that end in dammah change to sukoon (on regular verbs), that the masculine plurals lose their noons, and that the 2nd person feminine singular also loses its noon. The feminine plurals do not change. A verb may change to majzoom due to lam coming before it or laa in the form of a negative command (i.e. Don’t…!), or lammaa, or if it is the command for for the 3rd person, or if it is part of a conditional sentence, etc (refer to al ajroomiyyah for all the particles which cause jazm and nasb in a verb; refer to lessons 14 and 15 of Madinah Book 3 to learn about conditional sentences

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du3_16.htm  [link to ch 15])

Chart below taken from Madinah Book 2 lesson 22

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_23.htm

 

 

حالاتُ المُضَارِعِ الثَّلاثُ

المُضَارِعُ المَرْفُوْعُ                 المُضَارِعُ المَنْصُوْبُ                  المُضَارِعُ المَجْزُوْمُ   

حامدٌ يذهبُ                         لَنْ يذهبَ                       لم يذهبْ  

الطلابُ يذهبُونَ                      لن يذهبُوا                       لم يذهبُوا 

آمنة تذهبُ                           لن تذهبَ                       لم تذهبْ 

الطالبات يَذْهَبْنَ                      لن يَذْهَبْنَ                        لم يَذْهَبْنَ 

أنتَ تذهبُ                           لن تذهبَ                       لم تذهبْ 

أنتم تذهبُوْنَ                           لن تذهبُوا                       لم تذهبُوا 

أنت تذهبِينَ                          لن تَذْهَبِي                        لم تَذْهبِي 

أنتنّ تَذْهَبْنَ                           لن تَذْهَبْنَ                        لم تَذْهَبْنَ 

أنا أذهبُ                             لن أذهبَ                       لم أذهبْ 

نحن نذهبُ                           لن نذهبَ                       لم نذهبْ

Advertisements

Tags: , , , , ,


%d bloggers like this: