The Hijra of Allah’s Messenger

Taken from:

http://www.salafitalk.net/st/viewmessages.cfm?Forum=6&Topic=7800

The Hijrah of Allahýs Messenger
By Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-ýUthaimeen

Thirteen years after the commencement of the prophetic message, in the month of Rabeeý Al-Awwaal, the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam reached Madinah from Makkah, which was the initial point of revelation and the most beloved of places to him. He left Makkah as an emigrant, in compliance with the command of his Lord.

The Prophet had spent 13 years in Makkah calling people to the clear guidance of the message of his Lord. During this period the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and his followers were confronted with rejection, defiance and even physical harm from Quraysh (his tribe).

Moreover, Quraysh even conspired to kill him when their leaders met and exchanged views in order to decide on what course of action to take regarding the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and his followers. They felt endangered by his message and when some of his companions emigrated to Madinah, they knew that he would join them there sooner or later. They knew also about the pledge that the Ansaar (the Madinan supporters of the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam) had given to the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam which stipulated that they would protect him from any kind of harm, just as they protected their own wives and children.

Quraysh feared the revenge of the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and his followers if they had the opportunity of establishing themselves firmly in Madinah. Therefore, during the meeting of the elders of Quraysh, Abu Jahl said: ýMy opinion is that we should select a strong young man from each of our tribes and give each a sword to strike Muhammad all at the same time. On doing so, his blood will spread among all the Arab tribes ý and it will be impossible for the Banu ýAbd Manaaf (the clan to which the Prophet belonged) to avenge his death, rather they will be obliged to take the diyyah (blood-money).ý

ýAnd [remember, O Muhammad], when those who disbelieved plotted against you to restrain you or kill you or evict you [from Makkah]. But they plan, and Allah plans. And Allah is the best of planners.ý (Al-Anfaal: 30).

Despite this, Allah revealed the entire conspiracy to the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and permitted him to emigrate to Madinah. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, who had prepared himself for the move to Madinah, was told several times by the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam to wait. It was clear that the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam wanted to accompany him in the journey of Hijrah, as he sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam said to him: ýWait, for I hope that Allah will allow me also to emigrate.ý

ýAaýishah, may Allah be pleased with her, narrated: ýOne day, at midday, while we were sitting in our house, someone said to Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him): ýHere comes Allahýs Apostle, with his head and part of his face covered with a cloth (i.e. wishing to conceal his identity), at an hour in which he has never come to usý. Abu Bakr said: ýLet my father and mother be sacrificed for you (an expression that indicates the level of sacrifice that the person expressing it is prepared to make), (O Prophet)! It must have been an urgent matter that brought you here at this hour.ý The Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam asked permission to enter and then did so, he sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam then said to Abu Bakr: ýLet those who are here with you leave.ý Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, replied: ýThese people are your family (i.e. there is no need for them to leave because they are your own people); Let my father be sacrificed for you, O Allahýs Apostle!ý The Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam then said: ýI have been given permission leave (Makkah).ý Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, asked: ýCan I accompany you, O Allahýs Apostle? Let my father be sacrificed for you!ý The Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam replied: ýYes.ý Abu Bakr said: ýO Allahýs Apostle! Let my father be sacrificed for you! Take one of these two she-camels of mine.ý The Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam replied: ýI will take it only on the condition that I pay you for it.ý

ýSo we packed their baggage and placed food for their journey into a leather bag. Then the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, set off on their journey. After this, they arrived at a mountain named Thawr and remained there for three nights. ýAbdullah bin Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, who was an intelligent young man, would stay with them two at night and leave before dawn so that in the morning, he could be among the Quraysh in Makkah and act as if he had spent the whole night there. If he heard of any plot contrived by the Quraysh against the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, he would return and inform them two of the plot after dark.ý

Quraysh exerted the maximum effort to seize the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and his companion, may Allah be pleased with him. They searched in all directions and could not find them and so they announced a reward of 100 camels for anybody who could seize either or both of them. However, it was Allahýs plan to protect them, for some men from the Quraysh reached the very cave where the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and his companion were hiding ý but were unable to spot them.

Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said: ýI said to the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam when we were in the cave: ýO Messenger of Allah, if any of them looks down at their feet, they will see us.ý The Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam replied, assuringly: ýWhat do you think about two companions, of whom Allah is the third? (i.e. in terms of assistance)ý.

When Qurayshýs pursuit abated, the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, left the cave after three nights and headed for Madinah following the coastline. A young man named Suraaqah bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, who had not yet at that time embraced Islam caught sight of them on his horse. When Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, turned back and saw him, he said: ýMessenger of Allah, someone is following us.ý The Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam replied: ýDonýt be anxious; for Allah is with us.ý When Suraaqah came closer to them and heard the Prophetýs recitation of the Qurýan, the forelegs of his horse sank into the hard ground, so much so that the horseýs stomach touched the ground. Suraaqah dismounted and spurred the horse until it stood up, but its forelegs were struggling, causing dust to rise up into the sky like smoke.

Recalling this at a later date, Suraaqah said: ýI felt then that the Prophetýs affair will come to prominence some day, (i.e. I knew that the day would come when his message would be accepted by the masses) so I cried out at them giving them a pledge of security. The Messenger of Allah sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam was standing ahead of me with his companion. I mounted my horse and rode until I reached them and told them about the plots contrived against them. I offered them food and luggage and said to the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam: ýYou will pass by some flocks of sheep and camels that belong to me; you may take what you need from them.ý The Prophet replied: ýI have no need of this, just conceal your knowledge of us.ý

Suraaqah headed back to where he had set out from and diverted all those he came across away from the direction that the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and his companion, may Allah be pleased with him, were heading towards. It seems so strange that Suraaqah, who first sought after the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam and his companion, may Allah be pleased with him, to seize them ended up giving them his full support. This is the support Allah gives to those who serve His cause.
When news of the Prophetýs Hijrah reached the people of Madinah from among the Muhaajireen (those Muslims who emigrated from Makkah) and Ansaar (the Madinan supporters of the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam), they would go out to Al-Harrah, which is a place on the outskirts of Madinah, in anticipation of the Prophetýs arrival, until they would be forced back by the heat of the sun. When the day of arrival of the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam finally came, a Jew who was looking for something on a hillock in Madinah saw him approaching. Despite his enmity, he could not help but cry out: ýO Arabs! This is your long-awaited fortune and honour.ý

The Muslims hastened to meet the Messenger of Allah sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam with their weapons, as an honorary reception as well as an indication of their readiness for Jihad in the cause of Allah and to defend him. They met him at a place in Al-Harrah and he sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam diverted his course rightward and settled in the Banu ýAmr bin ýAwf in Qoobaý (a place on the outskirts of Madinah) where he stayed for some nights and built a mosque. He then went on to Madinah accompanied by many people, while many others lined the roadside.
Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, related: ýWhen we came to Madinah, people went out onto the roads and onto the tops of houses, along with their children and servants, crying: ýAllaahu Akbar! The Messenger of Allah has come! Allaahu Akbar! Muhammad has come!ý Anas bin Maalik, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated: ýI was walking among small boys, since I was one of them, while people were crying out: ýMuhammad has come! Muhammad has come!ý So the people repeated these words out of joy due to the Prophetýs arrival, who was the dearest to them. What an arrival! It filled the hearts with joy, pleasure and delight and illuminated the horizons with happiness.ý

When the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam reached Madinah, the various tribes of Al-Ansaar rivalled each other in leading the Prophetýs she-camel to their dwellings, each saying: ýCome, O Messenger of Allah! Stay with us! We are great in number, fully armed and ready to defend youý The Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam replied, regarding his she-camel: ýLet it go where it wishes, for it is inspired. I will stay where Allah wished me to stay.ý The she-camel stood in the place where he sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam later built his mosque, it knelt down and remained there for sometime, while the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam remained on its back. After this, the she-camel got up again and the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam loosened its bridle, it walked for a short distance and then returned to the previous location and knelt down. Upon this the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam said: ýHere is the settling place, Allah willingý. The place where the she-camel knelt belonged to two orphans, who offered to give it to the Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam for free, but he sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam refused and instead he purchased it from them.

Then Allahýs Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam asked: ýWhose is the nearest of the houses to here?ý A man called Abu Ayyoob, may Allah be pleased with him, replied: ýMine, O Allahýs Prophet! This is my house and this is my gate.ý The Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam then said: ýGo and prepare a place for our midday rest.ý Abu Ayyoob, may Allah be pleased with him, prepared it, then returned and said: ýCome along, both of you, with the blessings of Allah.ý

When Allahýs Prophet sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam went into the house, a man named ýAbdullah ibn Salaam, may Allah be pleased with him, came and said: ýI testify that you (i.e. Muhammad) are Apostle of Allah and that you have come with the truth. The Jews know very well that I am their chief and the son of their former chief and the most learned amongst them and the son of the former most learned amongst them. So send for them (i.e. the Jews) and ask them about me before they know that I have embraced Islam, for if they know that then they will say about me things which are not correct.ý So Allahýs Apostle sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam sent for them and they came and entered. Allahýs Apostle sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam said to them: ýO Jews! Woe to you! Fear Allah! I swear by Allah besides Whom none has the right to be worshipped that you people know for certain that I am the Apostle of Allah and that I have come to you with the truth, so embrace Islam.ý The Jews replied: ýWe do not know this.ý So he sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam repeated this twice and they repeated their answer twice. Then he sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam asked them: ýWhat sort of a standing does ýAbdullah ibn Salaam have amongst you?ý They said: ýHe is our chief, the son of our former chief and the most learned man, the son of the former most learned man amongst us.ý
He sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam said: ýWhat would you think if he should embrace Islam?ý They replied: ýAllah forbid! He cannot embrace Islam.ý He sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam repeated the question and they repeated the response, then He sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam called out: ýO Ibn Salaam! Come out to them.ý He came out and said: ýO Jews! Be afraid of Allah besides Whom none has the right to be worshipped. You know for certain that he is Apostle of Allah and that he has brought the true religion!ý The Jews replied: ýYou are a liar.ý On that Allahýs Apostle sallallaahu ýalaihi wa sallam turned them out. ýAbdullah ibn Salaam, may Allah be pleased with him, then said: ýDid I not tell you, Messenger of Allah, that they are a people of falsehood, betrayal, lying and obscenity?ý
That was the Prophetýs emigration, who left his home town to call to the religion of Allah and reform His servants.

Fear Allah! O servants of Allah and abandon acts of disobedience so that you can all at least achieve one kind of Hijrah. (This refers to the abandonment of sins. According to Islam, Hijrah is of two kinds: literal, which denotes moving from one place to another in order to be able to practise oneýs religion, and metaphorical which means the abandonment of sins). Whoever abandons something which he likes for Allahýs sake, Allah will reward him with something better. Whoever sticks to piety and goodness, Allah will be with him. Allah the Almighty said that which translates as: ýIndeed, Allah is with those who fear Him and those who are doers of good.ý (Al-Nahl: 128).

source: Gulf Times Newspaper of 2nd Jan 2009

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