Archive for February, 2012

The Types of Transitive Verbs

February 29, 2012

Download the file here:  The Types of Transitive Verbs

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The Four Meanings of جَعَلَ

February 26, 2012

From p.122 in the key of Madinah Book 3 – explanation of ch.25

:has four meanings  جَعَلَThe verb

a) to make, i.e. to cause something to be or to become something.

  In this sense it takes two objects e.g.

سَأَجْعَلُ هَذِهِ الغُرْفَةَ دُكَّانًا

‘I will make this room a shop’

is the first object  الغرفةَ Here

and دكانًاis the second object.

Here are some more examples:

جَعَلَ اللهُ الخَمْرَ حَرَامًا 

ِ‘Allah (God) had made alcoholic drinks haram.’

وَ جَعَلَ القَمْرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا

و جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا

 ‘And He made the moon a light therein, and He made the sun a lamp.’ (Qur’an 71:16)

و لَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً

 ‘And had your Lord so willed He would have made mankind one nation’ (Qur’an 11:118).

b) to think, to deem.

 In this sense also it takes two objects, e.g.,

أَ جَعَلْتَنِي مُدِيرًا؟ ‘Have you made me a headmaster?’, i.e.,

‘Do you think I am a headmaster?’

و جَعَلُوا المَلائِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَحْمَانِ إِنَاثًا

 ‘And they have made the angels, who are servants of Rahman (The Most Merciful, one of Allah’s Names), females’ (Qur’an 43:19),

 i.e. believe they are females. 

 [My note: This belief is refuted in the Qur’an:

And they make the angels who themselves are slaves to the Most Beneficent (Allâh) females. Did they witness their creation? Their evidence will be recorded, and they will be questioned!” (Az-Zukhruf 43:19)

Verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter, name the angels with female names.” (An-Najm 53:27)

Or did We create the angels females while they were witnesses?” (As-Saffat 37:150)

The great scholar of recent times, Imam as-Sa’dee (we ask that God bestow His Mercy upon him) said in explanation of this verse (37:150):

أي: ليس الأمر كذلك، فإنهم ما شهدوا خلقهم، فدل على أنهم قالوا هذا القول، بلا علم، بل افتراء على اللّه،

Meaning: The affair isn’t like that.  For indeed they didn’t witness their (the angels’) creation.  So this shows that they said this statement (the angels are female) without knowledge, on top of that they are lying upon Allah.”)

So the angels are not female.  They are male, but they are not like humans or jinns.  They do not eat, drink, sleep, or have desire.  And they only obey Allah (The Creator) and do not disobey him.  For more on the correct belief about the angels, go here.]

c)  to make, i.e. to create.

  In this sense, it takes only one object, e.g.,

الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ

والأَرْضَ و جَعَلَ الظُلُمَاتِ والنُّورَ

All praise is for Allah Who created the heavens and the earth, and made darkness and light’ (Qur’an 6:1)

     d) to begin.

  In this sense, it acts like كَانَand has ism and khabar.

 Its khabar is a verbal sentence with the verb in the mudari’, e.g., جَعَلَ حَامِدٌ يَضْرِبُنِي

‘Hamid began beating me. Here حامدis its ism and the sentence يضربني the khabar

(other verbs which act like this are طَفِقَand أَخَذَ, . In the explanation of ch.10 p.44 in the key to book 3, it says:

 

طَفِقَ بِلالٌ يَكْتُبُ‘Bilal began to write.’  طَفِقَis an incomplete verb.

  In this sentence Bilal is its ism, and the sentence يَكتُبُis its khabar.

 The verb in the khabar should be mudari’.

The verbs أَخَذَand جَعَلَare also used in the same way and with the same meaning, e.g.,

أَخَذَ المُدَرِّسُ يَشْرَحُ الدَّرْسَ ‘The teacher began to explain the lesson.’ 

  جَعَلْتُ آكُلُ   ‘I began to eat.’

Here the pronoun تُ is its ism and the sentence  آكُلُ is its khabar. )