Archive for the ‘Vocabulary’ Category

The Ruling on Saying صُدْفَة “sudfah” (coincidence)

April 17, 2014

 

The following question was posed to the Eminent Scholar Saalih Fawzaan

Arabic audio for the Q & A:

http://www.fileswap.com/dl/vYEU5v0d9k/sudfah.mp3.html

Arabic text1:

sudfah text

Q: Noble Shaikh, (we ask that) Allaah grant you success, is the following statement permissible: “I met this person by coincidence” when it was a meeting without a prior appointment?

A: When a person intends by sudfah (coincidence): without a prior appointment, then there is no harm in this. As for when a person intends by sudfah (coincidence) that this was something that was not already decreed (by Allaah) in a previous decree, then this is not permissible. This is rejection of qadr (divine predecree). However, most of the Muslims don’t mean this, they don’t mean the rejection of qadr. They mean by sudfah (coincidence) that they weren’t expecting it and that there was no previous agreement.

Shaikh Albaanee was asked2 about saying “sudfah”, specifically the expression:

حدث هذا صدفة

‘This happened by coincidence.’

and part of his reply was:

So if he intends by sudfah (coincidence) that there is no qadr (divine pre-decree), then he has disbelieved….As for when he intends by it that all of this is by the command of Allaah and His decree then there is nothing wrong with it.”

Footnotes

2In the series al-Hudaa wan-Noor, audio/tape #216, http://www.alalbany.net/849 (p.8 in the file)

Advertisements

Who are the Awliyaa, and The Difference between the Karaamah and the Mu’jizah

August 25, 2013

 

 

 

 

The following translated from:

http://www.binbaz.org.sa/mat/20394

 

 

Q: Do the Awliyaa have miracles, like what we hear about them?  Do they have free disposal in the world, the dominions of the heavens and the earth?  And do they intercede for people in the life of this world while they are in the barzakh or not?

A (Shaikh Bin Baz): The Awliyaa are the Believers.  The Awliyaa of Allah are the People of Imaan. (Allah) Lofty and Exalted is He, said (translated):

No doubt! Verily, the Auliyâ’ of Allâh [i.e. those who believe in the Oneness of Allâh and fear Allâh much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which he has forbidden), and love Allâh much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)], no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve,

 

Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allâh – Islâmic Monotheism), and used to fear Allâh much (by abstaining from evil deeds and sins and by doing righteous deeds). (Yunus 10:62-63)1

 

These are those who are the Awliyaa2 of Allah, from mankind and the jinn, from the men and the women. (Allah) The Most High said (translated):

 

The believers, men and women, are Auliyâ’ (helpers, supporters, friends, protectors) of one another, they enjoin (on the people) Al-Ma’rûf (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism and all that Islâm orders one to do), and forbid (people) from Al-Munkar (i.e. polytheism and disbelief of all kinds, and all that Islâm has forbidden); they perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât) and give the Zakât, and obey Allâh and His Messenger. Allâh will have His Mercy on them. Surely Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise. (At-Tawbah 9:71)3

And they have Karaamaat4 (miracles) when they are upright upon Eemaan (faith).  Allah may honor them with making it easy for them to practice their religion. The presence of comfort at the time of hardship is from the Karaamaat of Allah to them – that He relieves their hardship when they are surrounded by enemies, or when the enemies have gained power over them – Allah relieves them so that they are safe from their evil. Or (He helps them) with practicing their religion and with removing their difficult matters.  Or by saving them from thieves, or from predatory animals, or what is similar to that.  These are (all) from the Karaamaat of Allah to them.  And it (a karaamah) is a Ni’mah (blessing, favor) which happens to them which is out of the ordinary. This is what is called “a Karaamah” and this happens for the Awliyaa and for the Messengers.  With regards to the Messengers it is called: “a Mu’jizah” and with regards to the Awliyaa it is called: “a Karaamah”.  However (a Walee5) does not have free disposal over the dominions (of the heavens and earth).  They do not have free disposal over the creation, nor over the heavens, nor the earth.  They are restricted.  They do not have free disposal (in anything) except in what Allah has legislated, in what Allah has allowed for them.  And they do not know the unseen. And they do not have free disposal in the sky, nor the earth, except in what Allah permits.  Except in what Allah has legislated like buying, selling, farming and similar to that from what Allah has legislated for His servants.

As for what the Sufis and those who resemble them think – that the Awliyaa have free disposal (over the affairs) and that they know the unseen, then this is falsehood.  And it is ignorance.  The Awliyaa are like other than them – they have no sovereignty except what Allah has given them sovereignty over in farming and trade and other than that.  However, Allah may give them a Karaamah such as relieving their hardship or making easy their affairs as a bounty from Him to them in the time of need.  At the time of hardship and need Allah grants them a Karaamah like what happened to the People of the Cave. Allah honored them and they stayed in the cave for 300 (solar) years increased nine years (when  calculated by the lunar cycle) and nothing harmed them until Allah caused them to die the death he had prescribed for them.  And like what happened to ‘Abbaad bin Bishr and Usaid bin Hudhair – one night they were with the prophet – sallallaahu alayhe wa sallam – talking.  So when they left his presence on that dark night, each of their whips was lit up with a light until they reached their houses.  Allah put a light in their whips until they reached their houses.  This is a Karaamah from Allah, Exalted and Lofty is He.  And like what happened to ‘Amr bin at-Tafeel  when he came to his people, ad-Daws, he said, “O Messenger of Allaah!  Make for me an Aayah (sign) that they can benefit from” So he (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) asked Allah to make for him an Aayah.  So He made for him a light like that of a lamp in his face.  He said: “O my Lord, in other than my face.” So Allah put it (the light) in his whip.  When he raised it up, it would fill with light like a lamp.  So it was an Aayah for his people.  So Allah guided them because of it and they became Muslim. This is a Karaamah.  However, they (the Awliyaa) do not know the unseen, nor do they have free disposal over the affairs except with what Allah permits and what He gives them – Exalted and Lofty is He…

(end of the speech of Shaikh Bin Baz)

 

 

 

 

The following translated from:

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/article_16931.shtml

The belief (tareeqah) of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah with regards to the Awliyaa and the Imaams

The Imaams of this Islamic Legislation, and to Allah is due all the praise, are well-known Imaams whom the Ummah has praised and known their value.  However, it is not believed that they are infallible. Because there is none according to Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah who is protected from (making) mistakes nor from acknowledging the mistake except for the Messenger – alayhe as-salaatu was-salaam.   He was protected (by Allaah) from (making) mistakes (in the religion).  As for other than him, then no matter what level he has reached in being an Imam, he is still not infallible, ever.  Everyone makes mistakes. And everyone will have his speech taken (when he is in agreement with the Quran and Sunnah on the understanding of the Salaf) or left (when his speech opposes that) except for the Messenger of Allah – sallallahu alayhe wa sallam – whom Allah, The Most High, has commanded us to obey unconditionally (in all cases).

So they (Ahlus Sunnah) say, undoubtedly, that there are Imaams in this Ummah, and undoubtedly there are Awliyaa in it, however, we do not intend by that to affirm infallibility for anyone from these Imaams, nor (do we intend by that) to affirm for anyone from the Awliyaa that he knows the unseen or has free disposal over the creation.  Nor do they (Ahlus Sunnah) consider to be a Walee (singular of Awliyaa) everyone who says that he is a Walee or who brings false propaganda with the purpose of drawing the people to him.  They (Ahlus Sunnah) say: Indeed Allah, The Most High, has made clear who the Walee is in His statement (translated):

No doubt! Verily, the Auliyâ’ of Allâh [i.e. those who believe in the Oneness of Allâh and fear Allâh much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which he has forbidden), and love Allâh much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)], no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve,

 

Those who believed (in the Oneness of Allâh – Islâmic Monotheism), and used to fear Allâh much (by abstaining from evil deeds and sins and by doing righteous deeds).” (Yunus 10:62-63)6

These are the Awliyaa: Those who believe (have eemaan) and have taqwaa. So Eemaan (faith) is: The Aqeedah (belief system).  And Taqwaa is: (good) deeds, whether from speech or actions.

And Shaikh ul Islam (Ibn Taymiyyah) took (came up with) from this verse (10:63) a good expression and it is his statement:

من كان مؤمناً تقياً كان لله ولياً

“Whoever is a believer and has taqwaa is a Walee of Allaah”

This is the Walee in reality.  The Walee is not the one who draws the people to him, who gathers attendants (about him) and says, “I did (this)”, who seeks the help of the devils to try to find out the hidden matters, who dazzles the people with his speech so that they say: “This is a Walee”

No, because al-wilaayah7 comes from following the Messenger – alayhe as-salaatu was-salaam, and from a person’s Eemaan and his taqwaa. So if he is a Believer who has taqwaa, then he is a Walee.

Additionally, it is not necessary for every Walee that Allah gives him a Karaamah8. How numerous are the Awliyaa who have no Karaamah.  Because the Karaamah, most of the time, doesn’t come except to support the truth or repel falsehood.  It doesn’t come to make someone firm through seeing it with his eyes.  Therefore it is not obligatory for every Walee to have a Karaamah.  It may be that a Walee lives and dies and he does not have any Karaamah. And it may be that (a Walee) has numerous Karaamaat.  

The People of Knowledge say that every Karaamah for a Walee is indeed an Aayah for the Prophet whom he is following.  And I dont say “Mu’jizah” because it is more befitting that we call it an Aayah.  Because this is a Quranic expression (i.e. “Aayah”) and “Aayah” is more eloquent than “mu’jizah”. Because the meaning of “Aayah” is: a sign for the truthfulness of the Messenger who brought it.  Whereas the “mu’jizah” may happen at the hand of a magician or a strong person may do something which other than him are unable to do.  However, the expression: “Aayah” is more eloquent and more precise and it is a Quranic expression.  So that we call the “mu’jizaat” “Aayaat” is what is correct.

There are some people in this Ummah, according to what we have heard, who claim that they are Awliyaa.  However, whoever contemplates their situation finds that they are far from al-wilaayah and that they have no share in it (al-wilaayah).  However, they have devils who help them with whatever they want, so they use that to deceive the simple-minded people.

(end of Shaikh Uthaymeen’s speech)

 

 

 

The following question was answered by the Lajnah Daa’imah (Permanent Committee) consisting of the Scholars: Shaikh Bin Baz, Shaikh Abdur Razzaaq al Afeefee, Shaikh Ghudyaan, Shaikh Fawzaan, Shaikh Abdul Azeez Aalush-Shaikh (current Grand Mufti) and one other.

 

Fourth Question of Fatwa no. 164269

 

Q: What is the difference between the “Mu’jizah” and the “Karaamah”? And who are the “Awliyaa” of Allah?  Please give us a fatwa and we hope that Allah rewards you

 

 

A: The “Mu’jizah” is something out of the ordinary that Allah causes to happen at the hand of a Prophet as a confirmation of the truth that is with him which men are not capable of doing.  Like the she-camel (that came out of the middle of a rock10) of (Prophet) Saalih – peace be upon him.  And like the hand and stick of Musa11. And (like) the mu’jizah (miracle) of the Quran (revealed) to Muhammad – alayhe as-salaatu was-salaam.

 

And the “Karaamah” is something out of the ordinary that Allah causes to happen at the hand of a righteous servant as an honor to him, like in the story of Maryam, and the Companions of the Cave (mentioned in suratul Kahf (18)).  And this karaamah is a mu’jizah for the Prophet – sallallahu alayhe wa sallam – whom the righteous servant is following.  Because he doesn’t receive it (karaamah) except by being truthful in his following of him (the Prophet).  And it is not affirmed that it is a karaamah except when it occurs from one who is known to be upright following the legislation of (revealed to) Muhammad – (we ask that) Allah raise his rank and grant him peace.

 

With Allah is the success.  And peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad and his Companions and followers.

 

 

 

Footnotes

 

 

 

 

1Translation of these two verses taken from www.thenoblequran.com

2Shaikh Uthaymeen mentioned that Shaikhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah came up with an expression based on verse 10:63 regarding who is a Walee (sg of Awliyaa):

مَنْ كَانَ مُؤْمِنًا تَقِيًّا كَانَ لله وَلِيًّا

Whoever is a Believer and has taqwaa is a Wali of Allah”

See: http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/article_16931.shtml

 

3Translation of this verse taken from www.thenoblequran.com

4Karaamah: the name of a miracle or something extraordinary that Allah gives to His righteous servants (other than the Prophets -their miracles are named “mu’jizah” and Shaikh Uthaymeen said that it is more befitting to call a miracle of the Prophets an “Aayah”)

5Walee is the singular of Awliyaa

6Translation of these two verses taken from www.thenoblequran.com

7Al-wilaayah: in this context – what makes someone a Walee

8Karaamah: the name of a miracle or something extraordinary that Allah gives to His righteous servants (other than the Prophets -their miracles are named “mu’jizah” and Shaikh Uthaymeen said that it is more befitting to call a miracle of the Prophets an “Aayah”)

9Translated from: www.alifta.net

10

وقد أتاهم بناقة أخرجها الله له من الصخرة

And he (Prophet Saalih) brought them a she-camel that Allah had made to come out of a large rock for him”

See Tafseer Muyassar for verse 26:155 www.qurancomplex.com

11

فألقى موسى عصاه فتحولت ثعبانًا حقيقيًا, ليس تمويهًا كما يفعل السحرة, وأخرج يده مِن جيبه فإذا هي بيضاء كالثلج من غير برص، تَبْهَر الناظرين

So Musa threw his stick and it turned into a real live serpent, not a fake like the sorcerer’s do.  And he brought his hand out from his pocket and suddenly it was white like snow – without any leprosy – dazzling the onlookers”

See Tafsir Muyassar for verses 26:32-33 www.qurancomplex.com

The Definition of Taqwaa

June 17, 2013

 

 

 

Shaikh Uthaymeen said about the definition of taqwaa:

 

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/article_18016.shtml

(From his Explanation of Riyadhus Saaliheen, The Chapter of Taqwaa)

 

 

وهو أن يتخذ الإنسان ما يَقِيه من عذاب الله. والذي يقيك من عذاب الله هو فعل أوامر الله ،واجتناب نواهيه

 

 

And it (taqwaa) is that a person takes what will protect him from the punishment of Allah. And what protects you from the punishment of Allah is doing what He has commanded and avoiding His prohibitions”

 

 

 

 

Shaikh Fawzaan said in his lecture about attaining a happy life:

 

يتقون يعني  يتخذون وقاية من غضب الله  وعذابه

وما هي الوقاية؟

هل هي الدروع الحصون والجنود؟ لا

أو الثياب؟ لا

الوقاية العمل الصالح

الوقاية العمل الصالح

وتقوى الله أن تعمل  بطاعة الله على نور من الله ترجو ثواب الله

وأن تترك معصية الله على نور من الله تخاف من عقاب الله

ها هى التقوى

سُمِّيَ تقوى لأنها تقيك من غضب الله وتقيك من العذاب

هذه التقوى

 

 

 

They have taqwaa – meaning – they take something to protect them from Allah’s Anger and Punishment

What is the protection?

Is it armor, fortresses, and armies? No.

Is it clothing? No.

The protection is righteous deeds

The protection is righteous deeds

Having taqwaa of Allah is that you act in Allah’s obedience upon a light from Him, seeking the Reward of Allah

And that you leave off disobedience to Allah, upon a light from Him, fearing Allah’s punishment

This is taqwaa

It is called taqwaa because it protects you from the Anger of Allah and it protects you from the punishment. 

This is taqwaa

 

 

 

The root of تَقْوَى is from the verbوَقَى, يَقِيْ which means “to protect”. 

It’s masdar (verbal noun) is وِقَايَةٌ (protection) and its amr ( command ) form is:

قِ (m.sg), قِيْ (f.sg), قُوا (m.pl, see verse 66:6), and قِيْنَ (f.pl)

 

تَقِيٌّ is “having taqwaa”

 

For example:

 

وَكَانَ تَقِيًّا

 

And he (Yahyaa) was one having taqwaa” (19:13)

 

(taqee is mansoob in the verse due to kaana)

 

The verb meaning “to have taqwaa” is اِتَّقَى   يَتَّقِي   اِتَّقِ  

(53:32, 92:5, 33:1, )

 

The comparative/superlative form (اسْمُ التَفْضِيْل ) is أَتْقَىwhich is having more or having the most taqwaa (depending on the context) (49:13).  Other words that follow this pattern:

 

خَفِيٌّ hidden (19:3)  أَخْفَى more/most hidden1

Like in the saying of the Prophet – sallallahu alayhe was sallam – that shirk is:

أَخْفَى من دبيب النمل

more hidden than the crawling of the ant…”2

شَقِيٌّ wretched (11:105)  أَشْقَى more/most wretched (91:12, 92:15)

 

 

 

Footnotes

 

 

 

1أَخْفَى is also a verb meaning “to hide (something)”

2 Recorded by many of the hadeeth scholars, authenticated by Shaikh Albanee in Saheeh al Adab al Mufrad, narrated by Ma’qal bin Yasaar

How to say Stepfather/stepson

October 9, 2012

 

 

 

 

Stepmother رَابِّيَةٌ Stepfather1 رَابٌّ
Stepdaughter رَبِيْبَةٌ Stepson رَبِيْبٌ
Stepdaughters2 رَبَائِب

 

 

والرابُّ زوج الأُمِّ. والرابَّةُ امرأة الأب. وربيبُ الرجلِ: ابنُ امرأته من غيره، وهو بمعنى مَرْبوبٍ؛ والأنثى رَبيبَة.

 

 

 

And the Raabb (stepfather) is the husband of the mother.

 

And the Raabbah (stepmother) is the wife of the father.

 

And the Rabeeb (stepson) of a man is the son of his wife whom he is not the father of.  And Rabeeb means Marboob (on the object pattern – one who is nurtured, cultivated), its feminine is Rabeebah (stepdaughter).”3

 

 

 

 

 

And from Tafsir at Tabari of verse 4:234:

 

 

 

أما الربائب فإنه جمع ربيبة ، وهي ابنة امرأة الرجل. قيل لها ربيبة لتربيته إياها، وإنما هيمربوبة صرفت إلى ربيبة ، كما يقال: ” هي قتيلة من مقتولة “.  وقد يقال لزوج المرأة: ” هو ربيب ابن امرأته ، يعني به: ” هو رَابُّه ، كما يقال: ” هو خابر، وخبير و شاهد، وشهيد “.

 

 

 

As for “Rabaa’ib”, then it is the plural of “Rabeebah (stepdaughter)” and it is the daughter of a man’s wife.  She is called “Rabeebah” because of his nurturing5 her.

 

 

 

And she is “Marboobah” (the object form – one cultivated, nurtured) which is changed to “Rabeebah”6. Just like it is said, “She is Qateelah (killed)” (Qateelah is) from “Maqtoolah”

 

 

 

And it is said about the woman’s husband (the stepfather) that “he is Rabeeb of the woman’s son”, meaning “He is his Raabb (Nurturer)”7. Just like it is said, “He is Khaabir and Khabeer (both mean ‘aware’)” and “Shaahid and Shaheed (both mean ‘witness’)”

 

 

 

(end of translation of tafsir Imam at Tabari)

 

 

 

This may be a helpful file (some intensive pattern forms – it gives fa’eel and mentions that it is for the doer form (only), though fa’eel can be the form of the doer – like Shaheed (witness) which Imam at Tabari mentioned, or the form of the object, like Qateel (killed) which Imam at Tabari also mentioned):

 

 

 

https://sughayyirah.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/mubaalaghah.pdf

 

 

 

As for stepsister or stepbrother, then you can say this by saying:

 

 

 

أَخٌ غَيْرُ شَقِيْقٍ or أُخْتٌ غَيْرُ شَقِيْقَةٍ 

 

 

 

which means a sibling from one parent but not both, so it can mean stepbrother/stepsister or half brother/half sister

 

 

 

And Allah knows best.

 

(footnotes)

 

 

 

 

 

1 From www.almaany.com and http://baheth.info الصحاح في اللغة    under ربب

 

2    See also verse 4:23

 

3 From: http://baheth.info الصحاح في اللغة    under ربب

 

 

5 Tarbiyyah -nurturing, cultivating step by step, from the verb رَبَّى  يُرَبِّي

 

6 This form – fa’eel فَعِيْل is also an object form, like مَفْعُوْل it may be an intensive of the object form.

 

7 So we see that this pattern form – فَعِيْل not only is a pattern for the object, but also a pattern for the doer of the verb (the doer pattern which for 3 letter root bare (mujarrad) verbs, the form is فَاعِل )