Archive for the ‘Sarf’ Category

Fa’eel is an intensive form and may mean the Faa’il or the Maf’ool

August 27, 2013

 

The following are some quotes from Shaikh Uthaymeen (and one quote from the Tafseer book of semester four of the Madinah series) regarding the meaning of the pattern فَعِيْل

 

 

The following from:

 

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/article_18119.shtml

واللقيط في اللغة العربية فعيل بمعنى مفعول؛ لأن فعيلاً في اللغة العربية تأتي بمعنى مفعول في مواطن كثيرة، يقال: قتيل بمعنى مقتول، وجريح بمعنى مجروح، وإلا فالأصل أن فعيلاً بمعنى فاعل،

And “laqeet” in the Arabic language has the meaning of “maf’ool” (the object).  Because (a word on the pattern of) “fa’eel” in the Arabic language comes with the meaning of “maf’ool” in many places.  It is said: “qateel”, meaning – “maqtool” (killed) and “jareeh”, meaning – “majrooh” (injured).  And if it doesn’t mean that, then the foundational principle is that “fa’eel” has the meaning of “faa’il” (the doer of the action)…

 

(end of quote)

 

 

 

It is mentioned in a Madinah series side book for semester 4 (the book of tafseer) concerning the meaning of the word “rajeem” in the isti’aadhah:

 

والرجيم: فعيل بمعنى مفعول أي أنه مرجوم مطرود عن الخير

 

And “ar-rajeem” is (on the pattern of) “fa’eel” with the meaning of “maf’ool” (the object), meaning that he (shaytaan) is “marjoom” (cursed), “matrood” (expelled) from the good

 

(end of quote)

 

 

 

The following from:

 

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/printer_18335.shtml

 

{ {الْحَكِيمُ} }: فعيل بمعنى مُفْعِل، وفعيل بمعنى فاعل، أما فعيل بمعنى فاعل فهو كثير في اللغة العربية، مثل: قدير بمعنى قادر، وسميع بمعنى سامع،

“al-Hakeem” is (on the pattern of) “fa’eel” which has the meaning of “Muf’il”1 and “fa’eel” which has the meaning of “faa’il” (doer of the verb).  As for “fa’eel” meaning “faa’il”, then this occurs many times in the Arabic language.  For example: “qadeer” meaning “qaadir” (one possessing power, ability), and “samee’” meaning “saami’” (one who hears)

 

(end of quote)

 

 

 

The following from:

 

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/printer_18056.shtml

 

«حميد»: فعيل بمعنى فاعل، وبمعنى مفعول، فهو حامد ومحمود، حامد لعباده وأوليائه الذين قاموا بأمره، ومحمود يُحمدُ عزّ وجل على ما له من صفات الكمال، وجزيل الإنعام.

وأما «المجيد»: فهي فعيل بمعنى فاعل، أي: ذو المجد. والمجدُ هو: العظمة وكمالُ السُّلطان،

“Hameed” is: (on the pattern of) “Fa’eel” with the meaning of the “Faa’il” (Doer of the action).  And (also) with the meaning of the “Maf’ool” (object). For He is The Praiser and the Praised One.  He is the Praiser of His servants and His Awliyaa (righteous servants) who obey His commands.  And He is Mahmood (Praised), He is praised – Exalted and Lofty is He – for what He has from perfect Attributes and (His) abundance of favors (upon the creation).

 

As for “al-Majeed” then it is (on the pattern of) “Fa’eel” with the meaning of the “Faa’il”. Meaning: The One Who possesses al-majd.  And al-Majd is tremendous greatness and complete sovereignty.

 

(end of quote)

 

 

 

The following from:

 

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/article_17954.shtml

 

وقوله: ( رحيم ): هذه أيضاً اسم فاعل محول إلي صيغة المبالغة، وأصل اسم الفاعل من رحم: راحم، لكن حول إلى رحيم لكثرة رحمة الله عز وجل وكثرة من يرحمهم الله عز وجل

 

His statement: “Raheem”, this is also the “Faa’il” (Doer of the action) changed to a pattern of intensification.  The origin of the “Faa’il” for (the verb) rahima is: “Raahim”, however it was changed to (the intensive pattern) “Raheem” due to the abundance of Allah’s – Exalted and Lofty is He – Mercy and the abundance of those whom He – Lofty and Exalted is He – bestows His Mercy upon

 

 

 

 

Footnotes

 

 

 

 

 

 

1This is the “faa’il” (doer of the verb) pattern for three letter root verbs increased by 1 letter (and that one letter is a hamzah on an alif أ put at the front of the verb) for example: أَسْلَمَ and أَشْرَكَ (so the “doer” pattern for these two is “muf’il”, i.e. مُسْلِم and مُشْرِك )

Introduction to Compound Words

June 28, 2012

From:

Lisaanul Arab under the letter haa ح

http://baheth.info/

وقال الليث: قلت للخليل: ما مثل هذا من الكلام أَن يجمع بين كلمتين فتصير منهما كلمة؟ قال: قول العرب عبد شمس وعبد قيس، عبد كلمة وشمس كلمة؛ فيقولون: تَعَبْشَمَ الرجل وتَعَبْقَسَ، ورجل عَبْشَمِيٌّ وعَبْقَسِيٌّ. وروي عن الفراء أَنه قال: لم نسمع بأَسماءِ بنيت من أَفعال إِلاَّ هذه الأَحرف: البسملة والسبحلة والهيللة والحوقلة؛ أَراد أَنه يقال: بسمل إِذا قال: بسم الله، وحوقل إِذا قال: لا حول ولا قوَّة إِلا بالله، وحمدل إِذا قال: الحمد لله،

وجَعْفَلَ جَعْفَلَةً من جُعِلْتُ فداءك، والحَيْعَلَةُ من حيّ على الصلاة. قال أَبو العباس: هذه الثلاثة أَحرف أَعني حَمْدَلَ وجَعْفَلَ وحَيْعَلَ عن غير الفراء؛ وقال ابن الأَنباري: فلان يُبَرْقِل علينا، ودَعْنا من التَّبَرْقُلِ، وهو أَن يقول ولا يفعل، ويَعِدَ ولا يُنْجز، أُخذ من البَرْقِ والقَوْل

Al-Laith said: I said to Al-Khaleel : ‘What is an example of this when two words are combined to make one word?’  He said: ‘The saying of the Arabs –

Abdu Shams عبد شمس

1and Abd Qays  عبد قيس

Abd (servant) is one word and Shams (sun) is one word

So they say

   تَعَبْشَمَ الرجل The man worshiped the sun

And تَعَبْقَسَ

And the noun form of the verb is

عَبْشَمِيٌّ sun worshiper

And عَبْقَسِيٌّ

It is narrated from Al-Furaa that he said:  “We haven’t heard of (compound) words built from verbs except for the following

  البسملة والسبحلة2 والهيللة3 والحوقلة4″

What he meant was

 بَسْمَلَ5

which means to say Bismillah6

And حَوْقَلَ

7‘which is to say ‘laa hawla wa la quwwata illaa billah

And حَمْدَلَ

which is to say Alhamdulillah8

And the verb Ja’fala9 whose masdar is Ja’falah10 is from

جُعِلْتُ فِدَاءكَ  I was made ransom for you11

And the masdar Hay’alah12  from

Which means to say: Come to the Prayer  حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلَاة

Abul-Abbaas said: These three wordings – I mean

حَمْدَلَ وجَعْفَلَ وحَيْعَلَ

are from other than Al-Furaa

Lastly Lisaanul Arab says13 that Ibn al-Anbaaree mentioned the word

بَرْقَلَ يُبَرْقِلُ

which is to promise something and not fulfill that promise, or that a person says something but doesn’t do it

Al Qamoos al Muheet14 mentions that barqala means to lie.  Lisaan ul Arab15 also mentions this definition in one place.  In another place, Lisaanul Arab  mentions the following

منه قولهم: لا تُبَرْقِل علينا؛ والبَرْقَلة: كلام لا يَتْبَعه فعل،

مأْخوذ من البَرْق الذي لا مطر معه

From it is their saying: Don’t lie to us.  And Barqalah16 means: speech not followed by  actions. Taken from the lightning which has no rain with it17

1Qays is a family name

2From the verb سَبْحَلَ which is to say “God is perfect and free from all deficiencies and defects” – سُبْحَانُ اللهِ

3From the verb هَيْلَلَ which is to say “No one deserves to be worshiped except for God”

لا إلهَ إلّا الله

4These are all masdars

5Whose masdar is بَسْمَلَة

6With the Name of God – بِسْمِ اللهِ

7There is neither might nor power except with God –  لا حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلّا بِاللهِ  

8All the praise and thanks are only for God – الحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ

9جَعْفَلَ

10جَعْفَلَة

11In الصحاح في اللغة under  فدى it mentions:

ويقال: فَداهُ وفاداهُ إذا أعطى فداءه فأنقذه وفداه بنفسه.

And it is said: ‘he sacrificed for him’ when he gave himself as someone else’s ransom – so that he saved   him and sacrificed himself for him

12حَيْعَلَة which is the masdar for the verb حَىْعَلَ

13Summarily, not verbatim

16بَرْقَلَة The masdar for برقل

17برقل is formed from بَرْق – lightning, and قَوْل – speech

Forming the Doer in the 3 letter root increased (mazeed) verb

October 6, 2010

The main difference between forming the فاعِل (Doer of the action) and forming the مفْعُول (Object of the action) in (3 letter root) mazeed verbs is that the middle ROOT letter takes a kasrah when it is the Doer and a fat-hah when it is the Object (this is for regular verbs.  Irregular verbs may be different depending on the type of irregularity)

Forming Doer for mazeed verbs – second pattern

How to form the object (مَفْعُوْلٌ ) in 3 letter root, bare verbs

May 5, 2010

The object for thulaathee (3 letter root) mujarrad (bare) verbs is generally formed on the pattern of مَفْعُوْلٌ The maf’ool is the person or thing the action is done to, Ex:

حَفِظَ to memorize, مَحْفُوْظٌ something which was memorized

فَهِمَ to understand, مَفْهُوْمٌ understood

هَلْ هذا مفهوم؟

Is this understood?

More examples:

كَسَرَ  to break,  مَكْسُوْرٌ  broken

غَسَلَ  to wash, مَغْسُوْلٌ  washed

كَتَبَ  to write, مَكْتُوْبٌ  written

سَرِقَ  to steal, مَسْرُوْقٌ  stolen

سَمِعَ  to hear, مَسْمُوْعٌ heard

عَلِمَ  to know, مَعْلُوْمٌ   known

Formed with irregular verbs thusly:

سَرَّ to please, make happy مَسْرُوْر pleased/happy

أنا مسرور

I am happy.

قَال، يقول to say, مَقُوْل statement (something which was said)

بَاع، يبِيْع to sell, مَبِيْعٌ sold

دَعَا، يَدْعُوْ to invite, مَدْعُوٌّ invited

قَلَى، يَقْلِيْ to fry, مَقْلِيٌ fried

Refer to Madinah Book 3, chapter 5 for more examples

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du3_6.htm

 

The maf’ool for regular verbs may also be formed on the pattern فَعِيْلٌ

Examples:

جَرِيْحٌ injured

مَرِيْضٌ sick

رَجِيْمٌ cursed

This was taken from the Tafseer Book of Semester/Level 4 in the Madinah series:

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/taf4_3.htm

 

والرجيم: فعيل بمعنى مفعـول أي أنه مَرْجُوم مَطرود عن الخير

N.B. The mubaalaghah pattern فَعِيْلٌ can also be used for the فَاعِلٌ or Doer of the action. Ex:

نَصِيْرٌ one who helps a lot

How to form the Doer (فَاعِلٌ) in thulaathee mujarrad verbs

May 5, 2010

For thulaathee (3 letter root ) mujarrad (bare) verbs, the doer of the action (and the doer may be a person OR a thing) is formed upon the pattern :

فَاعِلٌ

Examples:

حَفِظَ to memorize

حَافِظٌ one who memorizes

 (just add ة to make it feminine – حَافِظَةٌ )

فَهِمَ to understand

فَاهِمٌ one who understands

 (just add oon to make it m.pl.: فَاهِمُوْنَ )

نَطَقَ to speak

نَاطِقٌ one who speaks (just add aat to make it f.pl.: نَاطِقَاتٌ )

The doer may also be formed on the mubaalaghah patterns. Examples:

فَقِهَ to understand

فَقِيْهٌ one with deep understanding

and likewise خَطِيْبٌ -lecturer – is from خَطَبَ

Another common mabalaghah pattern is فَعَّالٌ (fat-hah. Examples:

خَبَّازٌ Baker from خبز – to bake

حَلَّاقٌ Barber from حلق – to shave

غَسَّالَةٌ Washing Machine (Washer) from – غسل to wash

 

Do not confuse this pattern with فُعَّالٌ (dammah) which is a plural form. Examples:

رُكَّاب Passengers

حُكَّامٌ Judges

كُفَّارٌ Disbelievers

Doers for double letter verbs (3 letter root, bare) are formed like this:

حَجَّ to make Hajj

حَاجٌّ pilgrim (person who makes Hajj)

Doers for weak middle letter verbs are formed like this:

سَاقَ to drive

سَائِقٌ Driver

Doers for weak last letter verbs are formed like this:

رَقَى to recite ruqya (not to be confused with رَقِيَ to climb)

رَاقٍ One who recites ruqya

(راقٍ  raaqin has kasrataan)

As a side note, doers which are formed like this (above) take a ي as an ending in three cases:

1.when it has ال .Example: المُحَامِيْ the lawyer (مُحَامِيَةٌ female lawyer)

2.when it is mudaf هُوَ قَاضِيُ المَدِيْنَةِ He is the judge of the town

3.when it is mansoob زَارَ مُحَامٍ قَاضِياً A lawyer visited a judge

(See Madinah Book 3, lesson 1,

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du3_2.htm

 

 about 1/3 down the page )

On how to form the Doer of an action (فاعِلٌ ) for 3 letter root mujarrad (bare) verbs, see Madinah Book 3, lesson 5

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du3_6.htm

 

Meanings of the mazeed (increased) patterns II – X

May 3, 2010

This is a very beneficial file (not made by me)

Meaning Patterns

Mubaalaghah- 15 intensive forms

April 20, 2010

Taken from the book, From the Treasures of Arabic Morphology

mubaalaghah