Archive for the ‘Verbs’ Category

Touching on the Passive Voice

December 17, 2014

Sometimes verbs have an active voice (مَعْلُوْم )

and sometimes a passive voice ( مَجْهُوْل ).

When verbs have an active voice,

the Doer of the action is mentioned.

In the passive voice, the one receiving

the action is mentioned, but the one

who did the action is not mentioned.

For example:

خَلَقَ he created (active voice) – we know

the doer of the action here is “he”

خُلِقَ he was created (passive voice) – we

know now that “he” is the one receiving the

action, but the one who did the action

is not mentioned.

Likewise: خَلَقْتُ (ma’loom) – I created

As opposed to:

خُلِقْتُ (majhool) – I WAS created

Also: وَلَدْتُ I gave birth

As opposed to:

وُلِدْتُ I was born

And in the Quran:

أَفَلَا يَنظُرُونَ إِلَى الْإِبِلِ

كَيْفَ خُلِقَتْ

-88:17:00

And an example of an irregular verb:

بَنَى, يَبْنِي

We have the active form in the hadeeth:

مَنْ بَنَى لله مَسْجِدًا

بَنَى اللهُ لَهُ بَيْتًا في الجنة

Whoever builds a masjid for the sake of Allaah,

Allaah will build for him a house in Paradise

And we have the passive form in the hadeeth:

بُنِيَ الإسْلَامُ عَلى خَمْسٍ

Islaam is built upon five…

So that is how the past tense majhool (passive)

is formed for thulaathee mujarrad verbs.

As for the present tense majhool

for thulaathee mujarrad,

then observe the following:

يَسْأَلُ (ma’loom) he asks

As opposed to:

يُسْأَلُ (majhool) he IS asked

And in the verse:

لَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ

{21:23}

He wont be asked about what He does,

but they will be asked

The following is part of 2 charts taken from

Madinah Book 3, chapter 3

Going over the active (ma’loom) voice

And passive (majhool) voice

In both the past tense (maadi)

And the present (mudaari’) tense

جدول الفعل الماضي

الفعل المبني للمجهول

الفعل المبني للمعلوم

سُئِلَ

سَأَلَه المدرسُ

سُئِلوا

سَأَلَهم المدرسُ

سُئِلَتْ

سأَلَها الأبُ

سُئِلْنَ

سأَلهُنَّ الأبُ

سُئِلْتَ

سَأَلَكَ المدرسُ

سُئِلْتُمْ

سَأَلَكُم المدرسُ

سُئِلْتِ

سَأَلَكِ الأبُ

سُئِلْتُنَّ

سَأَلَكُنَّ الأبُ

سُئِلْتُ

سَأَلَنِي المدرسُ

سُئِلْنَا

سَأَلنَا المدرسُ

جدول الفعل المضارع

الفعل المبني للمجهول

الفعل المبني للمعلوم

يُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلهُ المدرسُ

يُسْأَلُونَ

يَسْأَلُهم المدرسُ

تُسْأَل

يَسْأَلُها الأبُ

يُسْأَلْنَ

يَسْأَلُهُنَّ الأبُ

تُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلُكَ المدرسُ

تُسْأَلُونَ

يَسْأَلُكُمُ المدرسُ

تُسْأَلِيْنَ

يَسْأَلُكِ الأبُ

تُسْأَلْنَ

يَسْأَلُكُنَّ الأبُ

أُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلُنِي المدرسُ

نُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلُنا المدرسُ

Here are some examples of the passive

voice for some of the mazeed verbs:

Form II

عَلَّمَ he taught (ma’loom)

As opposed to:

عُلِّمَ he was taught (majhool)

عَلَّمْتُ I taught

عُلِّمْتُ I was taught

In the present tense:

أُعَلِّمُ I teach

أُعَلَّمُ I am being taught

Form III

قَابَلَ he met

As opposed to:

قُوْبِلَ he was made to meet

And for the irregular verb نَادَى (the meaning

is دَعَا – to call or to call upon).

Here it is in active (ma’loom) form:

وَزَكَرِيَّا إِذْ نَادَى رَبَّهُ

{21:89}

And Zakariyyah, when he called upon his Lord

And here it is in passive (majhool) form:

فَلَمَّا جَاءهَا نُودِيَ

{27:8}

So when he came, he was called

Form IV

أَنْزَلَ he sent down

As opposed to:

أُنْزِلَ it was sent down

And in the Quran:

كِتَابٌ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ

{7:2}

A book sent down to you

As for the irregular verb أَلْقَى (to throw),

فَأَلْقَى مُوسَى عَصَاهُ

{26:45}

So Musa threw his stick

is in the passive أُلْقِيَ

فَأُلْقِيَ السَّحَرَةُ سَاجِدِينَ

{26:46}

So the sorcerers were thrown down, prostrating

Another irregular IV verb which is used often:

ءَاتَى (or آتَى ) “to give”

وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا

{19:12}

And We gave him wisdom while he was a young child

In the passive, changes to أُوْتِيَ

وَمَن يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيراً

{2:269}

And whoever is given hikmah has indeed been given an abundance of good

وَأُوتِيَتْ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ

{27:23}

and she has been given…

Exercises

Pick the passive verbs (past or present tense)

out of the following verses:

1.{88:18-20}

2.{27:8}

فَلَمَّا جَاءهَا نُودِيَ أَن بُورِكَ

مَن فِي النَّارِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا

3.{25:3}

وَاتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ آلِهَةً

لَّا يَخْلُقُونَ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ

4.{40:12}

ذَلِكُم بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِيَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ كَفَرْتُمْ

وَإِن يُشْرَكْ بِهِ تُؤْمِنُوا

فَالْحُكْمُ لِلَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْكَبِيرِ

5.{27:46}

قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لِمَ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ قَبْلَ

الْحَسَنَةِ لَوْلَا تَسْتَغْفِرُونَ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

6.{27:47}

قَالُوا اطَّيَّرْنَا بِكَ وَبِمَن مَّعَكَ

قَالَ طَائِرُكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ

بَلْ أَنتُمْ قَوْمٌ تُفْتَنُونَ

7.{27:65}

قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ

وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ

وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُونَ

8.{28:41}

وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ

وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يُنصَرُونَ

9.{28:70}

وَهُوَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ

لَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْأُولَى وَالْآخِرَةِ

وَلَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

10.{19:33}

وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَيَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدتُّ

وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيًّا

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Does the Arabic word “lan” imply “never, ever”?

January 14, 2013

The following from:

www.salafitalk.net/st/uploads/LUI_33_ru’yah_2_answers.doc

which is taken from some Q and A based on Shaikh Fawzaan’s explanation of Lum’atul I’tiqaad – see here:

http://www.salafitalk.net/st/viewmessages.cfm?Forum=8&Topic=5398 )

 

 

Q14. Does the Arabic word lan imply “never, ever”? And what is the significance of this in the context of the ru’yah ?

No, it does signify “never, ever”. It is merely a negation for a certain length of time in the future.

And this is shown by the statement of Allaah about the Jews:

Say: If the abode of the Hereafter is just for you alone with Allaah, to the exclusion of the rest of Mankind, then wish for death if you are indeed truthful!

And they lan (will not) wish for it at all.1

So Allaah mentions that the Jews lan yatamannawhu (will not long for death) but this is only in this worldly life. As for the Hereafter, then they will certainly long for death, as when they will say:

O Maalik (the angel in charge of the Fire) let your Lord put an end to us!2

So despite Allaah telling us about them that they will not long for death (using the Arabic word lan), then they will long for death in the Hereafter, showing that the word lan does not imply “never, ever in the future”.

And the significance of this in the context of the ru’yah is that when Allaah tells Moosaa:

lan taraanee (you will not see Me).3

Then this does not necessitate that ‘you will never, ever at any point in the future see Me.’ And Allaah did not say to Moosaa ‘laa taraanee’ (you cannot see Me).

Rather the use of lan means that Allaah will not be seen for a certain period of time (i.e. in this world) but it does not prove that Allaah will never ever be seen

 

 

1 Soorah al Baqarah (2) aayaat 94 to 95

2 Soorah az Zukhruf (43) aayah 88

3 Soorah al A’raaf (7) aayah 143

How to make an intransitive verb transitive

June 21, 2012

 

Download the file from here: Changing intransitive verbs to transitive

 

 

Pattern XIII if’awwala, yaf’awwilu

April 4, 2012

http://sughayyirahbinaalafaal.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/binaa-al-afaal-17-ifawwala-yafawwilu/

 

 

Pattern XII if’aw’ala, yaf’aw’ilu

March 20, 2012

http://sughayyirahbinaalafaal.wordpress.com/2012/03/20/binaa-al-afaal-16-ifawala-yafawilu/

 

The Types of Transitive Verbs

February 29, 2012

Download the file here:  The Types of Transitive Verbs

The Four Meanings of جَعَلَ

February 26, 2012

From p.122 in the key of Madinah Book 3 – explanation of ch.25

:has four meanings  جَعَلَThe verb

a) to make, i.e. to cause something to be or to become something.

  In this sense it takes two objects e.g.

سَأَجْعَلُ هَذِهِ الغُرْفَةَ دُكَّانًا

‘I will make this room a shop’

is the first object  الغرفةَ Here

and دكانًاis the second object.

Here are some more examples:

جَعَلَ اللهُ الخَمْرَ حَرَامًا 

ِ‘Allah (God) had made alcoholic drinks haram.’

وَ جَعَلَ القَمْرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا

و جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا

 ‘And He made the moon a light therein, and He made the sun a lamp.’ (Qur’an 71:16)

و لَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً

 ‘And had your Lord so willed He would have made mankind one nation’ (Qur’an 11:118).

b) to think, to deem.

 In this sense also it takes two objects, e.g.,

أَ جَعَلْتَنِي مُدِيرًا؟ ‘Have you made me a headmaster?’, i.e.,

‘Do you think I am a headmaster?’

و جَعَلُوا المَلائِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَحْمَانِ إِنَاثًا

 ‘And they have made the angels, who are servants of Rahman (The Most Merciful, one of Allah’s Names), females’ (Qur’an 43:19),

 i.e. believe they are females. 

 [My note: This belief is refuted in the Qur’an:

And they make the angels who themselves are slaves to the Most Beneficent (Allâh) females. Did they witness their creation? Their evidence will be recorded, and they will be questioned!” (Az-Zukhruf 43:19)

Verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter, name the angels with female names.” (An-Najm 53:27)

Or did We create the angels females while they were witnesses?” (As-Saffat 37:150)

The great scholar of recent times, Imam as-Sa’dee (we ask that God bestow His Mercy upon him) said in explanation of this verse (37:150):

أي: ليس الأمر كذلك، فإنهم ما شهدوا خلقهم، فدل على أنهم قالوا هذا القول، بلا علم، بل افتراء على اللّه،

Meaning: The affair isn’t like that.  For indeed they didn’t witness their (the angels’) creation.  So this shows that they said this statement (the angels are female) without knowledge, on top of that they are lying upon Allah.”)

So the angels are not female.  They are male, but they are not like humans or jinns.  They do not eat, drink, sleep, or have desire.  And they only obey Allah (The Creator) and do not disobey him.  For more on the correct belief about the angels, go here.]

c)  to make, i.e. to create.

  In this sense, it takes only one object, e.g.,

الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ

والأَرْضَ و جَعَلَ الظُلُمَاتِ والنُّورَ

All praise is for Allah Who created the heavens and the earth, and made darkness and light’ (Qur’an 6:1)

     d) to begin.

  In this sense, it acts like كَانَand has ism and khabar.

 Its khabar is a verbal sentence with the verb in the mudari’, e.g., جَعَلَ حَامِدٌ يَضْرِبُنِي

‘Hamid began beating me. Here حامدis its ism and the sentence يضربني the khabar

(other verbs which act like this are طَفِقَand أَخَذَ, . In the explanation of ch.10 p.44 in the key to book 3, it says:

 

طَفِقَ بِلالٌ يَكْتُبُ‘Bilal began to write.’  طَفِقَis an incomplete verb.

  In this sentence Bilal is its ism, and the sentence يَكتُبُis its khabar.

 The verb in the khabar should be mudari’.

The verbs أَخَذَand جَعَلَare also used in the same way and with the same meaning, e.g.,

أَخَذَ المُدَرِّسُ يَشْرَحُ الدَّرْسَ ‘The teacher began to explain the lesson.’ 

  جَعَلْتُ آكُلُ   ‘I began to eat.’

Here the pronoun تُ is its ism and the sentence  آكُلُ is its khabar. )

Verbs and Vocabulary

May 12, 2011

https://sughayyirah.wordpress.com/2010/05/26/verb-lists/

Basic Breakdown of Verbs

January 8, 2011

A Basic Breakdown of Verb Conjugations

(Regular verbs, Present tense)

I haven’t seen a book series for learning Arabic which I like better than the Madinah series when it comes to teaching verbs. Knowledge should be organized in such a way that it is easy for the student to memorize. What I have seen time and again is that when many different types of verbs (mujarrad and mazeed, regular and irregular, etc) are all mixed together, the student has a difficult time memorizing the many different conjugations. So this will be a basic breakdown of verb conjugations for regular verbs in the present tense – using this chart from Madinah Book 3 and Binaa al Af’aal as a guide. Irregular verb conjugations can be found here and here. Past tense conjugations can be found here and here . It is important to memorize these forms and patterns little by little. Get a notebook, divide it into sections, organize your verbs a little at a time (for example, memorize all 6 forms of thulaathee mujarrad verbs before you try to memorize thulaathee mazeed), then write out how to conjugate each verb.

Any verb charts included in this explanation are my own. I organized the conjugation in a way which made it easy for me to memorize it. To begin:

A verb is either Rubaa’ee (4 letter root) or Thulaathee (3 letter root).

An example of a Rubaa’ee verb is: بَعْثَرَ

So you would look it up in the Hans Wehr under these 4 letters

[In the Hans Wehr, words are arranged by their roots. Even though this can be more difficult for the student at first, it is more beneficial in its arrangement than the Mawrid (because the student learns how to find words by their roots – thus learning how to identify a word’s root)]

An example of a Thulaathee verb is: ذَهَبَ

So you would look it up in the Hans Wehr under these 3 letters

A Thulaathee verb is either Mujarrad (Bare) or Mazeed (Increased)

The thulaathee verb has 6 mujarrad forms and they are verbs on the patterns of:

  1. كَتَبَ، يَكْتُبُ (middle letter in past tense has fat-hah, in the present tense, the middle letter has dammah)

  2. جَلَسَ، يَجْلِسُ (middle letter in the past tense has fat-hah, in the present tense, the middle letter has kasrah)

  3. ذَهَبَ، يَذْهَبُ (middle letter has fat-hah in the past and present tense)

  4. سَمِعَ، يَسْمَعُ (middle letter in the past tense has kasrah, but in the present tense has fat-hah)

  5. كَثُرَ، يَكْثُرُ (middle letter has dammah in the past and present)

  6. حَسِبَ، يَحْسِبُ (middle letter has kasrah in the past and present)

Forms 5 and 6 are a bit more rare than forms 1-4. In Madinah Book 2, chapter 10, it lists forms 1-4, so this is a good lesson to look at:

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_11.htm

(link updated 7/14/2014)

For verb charts for forms 1-4, look here.

You’ll notice when you look up a word in the Hans Wehr, that it will have a letter beside it. For example, if you wanted to look up درس، then you would see a “u” beside درس. That means that the present tense form of درس has a dammah (or “u” sound) over the middle letter – يَدْرُسُ . So if you see a Thulaathee Mujarrad verb and do not know which of these six ways it is conjugated in the present tense, then look it up in the Hans Wehr. If you see an “a”, this means the middle letter in the present tense has fat-hah, and “i” beside the word means the middle letter in the present tense has kasrah.

The masaadir (ج: مصدر ) of Thulaathee Mujarrad verbs have different patterns, but two common patterns are:

1.فُعُوْلٌ For example: خُرُوْجٌ (leaving), رُكُوْعٌ (bowing), سُجُوْدٌ (prostration)

2.فَعْلٌ and فِعْلٌ and فُعْلٌ For example: دَرْسٌ (lesson), فِعْلٌ (action), شُرْبٌ (drinking)

Forming the أمر (command) is somewhat simple for these verbs:

Take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation of the Thulaathee Mujarrad verb in the present tense, e.g.: يَدْرُسُ

Take off the ي and replace it with hamzatul – wasl (merging hamza): ادْرُسُ

If the middle letter in the present tense has a dammah, then hamzatul wasl will take a dammah: اُدْرُسُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اُدْرُسْ

And that is the command for the masculine singular – Study!

To make it feminine (sg), have the last letter take kasrah and add a ي to it, e.g.: اُدْرُسِي

Now, if the middle letter in the present tense has fat-hah or kasrah, then hamzatul wasl will take kasrah (only) Examples:

يَفْتَحُ

Take off the ي and replace it with ا e.g.: افْتَحُ

If the middle letter has fat-hah or kasrah, the ا (hamzatul wasl) will have kasrah, e.g.: اِفْتَحُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اِفْتَحْ Open! (m.sg)

Do the same thing for يَغْسِلُ

Look at the Madinah lesson (Book 2, dars 14) for further practice:

( http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_15.htm  )

The Thulaathee verb which is Mazeed will be increased by 1 letter, 2 letters or 3 letters

The three forms which are increased by 1 letter:

1.(II)عَلَّمَ، يُعَّلِمُ  (increased by a shaddah – a shaddah letter means two letters are present, one of which has sukoon, e.g.: مَرَّ is really 3 letters – مَ رَ رْ )

2.(III) سَافَرَ، يُسَافِرُ (increased by alif after the first letter)

3.(IV) أَسْلَمَ، يُسْلِمُ  (increased by hamzah [on top of alif] in front of the first letter)

In the Hans Wehr, the definition for verbs increased by shaddah (e.g. علّم ) are listed after Roman numeral II. The definition for verbs increased by an alif after the first letter (سافر ) are listed after Roman numeral III. The definition for verbs increased by a hamzah in front of the first letter (e.g. أسلم ) are listed after Roman numeral IV.

For example, the word قَبلَ . When you look it up in the Hans Wehr, you see:

qabila a

The “a” after “qabila” means that the middle letter in the present tense has fat-hah:

يَقْبَلُ

Then it gives the masdar for the thulaathee mujarrad form ( قَبُوْل or قُبُوْل )

Then it gives the definition of the thulathee mujarrad form: to accept (is one definition). After it lists the definitions for the thulathee mujarrad form, you see II and this is the start of the definitions of the thulathee mazeed forms. II is specifically the definition/s for the root increased by shaddah (like علّم، درّس، etc), which in the case of قبل is: قَبَّلَ

The definition of قبّل is: to kiss

Then you see III and this means it is giving you definitions for the thulaathee mazeed form which is increased by an alif after the first letter (قاتل، سافر etc), which in this case is قَابَلَ . The definition of قابل is : to meet (this is one of the definitions)

After listing all the definitions for form III, then you will see IV which means it is giving definitions for the thulathee mazeed form which is increased by a hamza in front of the first letter (like أسلم، أشرك ). In this case, it is أَقْبَلَ . The definition of أَقْبَلَ is: to approach.

The masaadir for the mazeed forms:

II عَلَّمَ، يُعَلِّمُ، تَعْلِيْمٌ

III قَاتَلَ، يُقَاتِلُ، قِتَالٌ

[This form actually has two masdars – the other is on the form of مُفَاعَلَة like مُقَابَلَةٌ (meeting/appointment)]

IV أَسْلَمَ، يُسْلِمُ، إِسْلَام

 

The Command for these:

For form II, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يُعَلِّمُ

Take off the yaa: عَلِّمُ

Give the last letter sukoon: عَلِّمْ

That is the masculine singular (3rd person) command. To make it feminine singular, add kasrah and yaa: عَلِّمِي

For form III, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation: يُقَاتِلُ

Take off the yaa: قَاتِلُ

Give the last letter sukoon: قَاتِلْ

For form IV, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation: يُسْلِمُ

Take off the yaa and replace it with hamzah (with fat-hah): أَسْلِمُ

Give the last letter sukoon: أَسْلِمْ    (“Aslim” if the kasrah doesnt show under ل )

[Note that this form’s command begins with hamzatul qat’ ( أَ) and not hamzatul wasl ( ا )]

For practice on conjugating these verbs (Mazeed by 1 letter) and the meanings of these forms, go here

The five forms which are increased by 2 letters:

1.(V) تَعَلَّمَ، يَتَعَلَّمُ (which is increased by a shaddah and a taa in the beginning)

2.(VI) تَعَاوَنَ، يَتَعَاوَنُ (which is increased by an alif and a taa in the beginning)

3.(VII) اِنْقَلَبَ، يَنْقَلِبُ (which is increased by an alif and noon in the beginning)

4.(VIII) اِجْتَمَعَ، يَجْتَمِعُ (which is increased by an alif and taa which comes after the first letter)

5.(IX) اِحْمَرَّ ، يَحْمَرُّ(which is increased by an alif and a shaddah on the last letter)

 

{This form is generally used to describe colors and defects. The two examples in Binaa al Af’aal for this form are:

اِحْمَرَّ زَيْدٌ (Zaid turned red) and اِعْوَرَّ زَيْدٌ (Zaid became one-eyed) }

 

The Roman numerals V – IX are representative of where you will find the definition of these forms in the Hans Wehr. So if you wanted to find the meaning of تعاون you would have to look it up by its root. To find its root, you simply take off the two increased letters – taa and alif. This give you the root – عون . So when you look up عون , you look at the definition after VI and you will see the definition of تعاون

If you are looking up definitions and you don’t find certain Roman numerals, e.g. you see a V but not a VII, then that may mean that the word does not have that particular form or it may mean that the dictionary does not have that particular definition in it.

The مصادر for these are formed on the following patterns:

V.تَعَلَّمَ، يَتَعَلَّمُ، تَعَلُّمٌ

VI. تَعَاوَنَ، يَتَعَاوَنُ، تَعَاوُنٌ

VII. اِنْقَلَبَ، يَنْقَلِبُ، اِنْقِلَابٌ

VIII. اِجْتَمَعَ، يَجْتَمِعُ، اِجْتِمَاعٌ

IX. اِحْمَرَّ، يَحْمَرُّ، اِحْمِرَارٌ

Note that forms VII, VIII, and IX begin with hamzatul wasl (the merging hamzah) and not hamzatul qat’ ( أ )

To form the command for form V, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَتَعَلَّمُ

Take off the yaa: تَعَلَّمُ

Give the last letter sukoon: تَعَلَّمْ

To make it feminine singular, add a kasrah and yaa – تَعَلَّمِي

To form the command in form VI, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَتَعَاوَنُ

Take off the yaa: تَعَاوَنُ

Give the last letter sukoon: تَعَاوَنْ

To for the command for form VII, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَنْقَلِبُ

Take off the yaa and replace it with an alif with kasrah: اِنْقَلِبُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اِنْقَلِبْ

 

To form the command in form VIII, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَجْتَمِعُ

Take off the yaa and replace it with an alif with kasrah: اِجْتَمِعُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اِجْتَمِعْ

To form the command in form IX, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَحْمَرُّ

Take off the yaa and replace it with alif with kasrah: اِحْمَرُّ

You can’t give the last letter sukoon (since a shaddah means two letters, one of which already has sukoon, e.g. رُ + رْ and two letters with sukoon cant be beside each other) so the command (masc.sing.) when a verb ends with a double letter takes fat-hah: اِحْمَرَّ

(Which happens to be the same form as the infinitive. This is likewise how you form the command (m.sg) in thulaathee mujarrad verbs with a double letter (i.e. by putting fat-hah on it). For example, صَبَّ – to pour. The command (m.sg) is صُبَّ . Because if you give the last letter sukoon then you will have بْ + بْ and this is not possible. So it takes fat-hah instead. For more on these types of irregular verbs (called muda’af) click on the links for irregular verbs I included in the beginning.)

Note that the command for forms VII, VIII, and IX begin with hamzatul wasl (the merging hamza) and not hamzatul qat’ ( أ )

For practice on conjugating these verbs (Mazeed by 2 letters) and the meanings of these forms, go here

There are four forms which are increased by 3 letters

But I am only going to list one. My intent was not for this to be a long dissertation on verbs, but rather a basic foundation which can be built upon (the other three forms can be found here )

Form X (in the Hans Wehr): اِسْتَعْمَلَ، يَسْتَعْمِلُ which is increased by alif, seen , and taa. To find the definition in Hans Wehr, take off the mazeed letters – است and you have the root – عمل . Once you find the root in Hans Wehr, look at the definitions after number X (Roman numeral 10)

The masdar is formed on the pattern of اِسْتِعْمَالٌ

To form the command, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَسْتَعْمِلُ

Take off the yaa and replace it with alif with kasrah: اِسْتَعْمِلُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اِسْتَعْمِلْ

To make it feminine (singular) add a yaa: اِسْتَعْمِلِي

Thus ends this basic breakdown of verbs. Once you have memorized these forms and patterns, you have a solid foundation in shaa Allah.

 

Past tense thulaathee mujarrad saalim

October 21, 2010

 Past tense for thulaathee (three letter root ) mujarrad (bare) saalim (regular) verbs

We studied دَرَسْنَا   I studied دَرَسْتُ
You (m.pl.) studied دَرَسْتُم   You (m.sg.) studied دَرَسْتَ
You (f.pl.) studied دَرَسْتُنَّ   You (f.sg.) studied دَرَسْتِ
They (m) studied دَرَسُوا   He studied دَرَسَ
They (f) studied دَرَسْنَ   She studied دَرَسَتْ

Now practice conjugating in the Past tense for the following verbs:

To break كَسَرَ   To understand (also he understood) فَهِمَ
To leave خَرَجَ   To hear سَمِعَ
To worship عَبَدَ   To go ذَهَبَ
To prostrate سَجَدَ   To eat أَكَلَ
To wash غَسَلَ   To drink شَرِبَ
To attend حَضَرَ   To do فَعَلَ