Archive for the ‘Regular’ Category

Past Tense for Thulaathee Mazeed Verbs, Regular

May 20, 2010

 

Using the past tense with thulaathee1 mazeed2 regular verbs is very easy. For most of the pronouns, we are simply going to put a sukoon on the last letter and then attach the pronoun. Examples:

سَافَرْتُ I traveled – from سَافَرَ – we put a sukoon on the last letter and then added تُ which is for I (did something in the past tense)

Likewise:

تَنَاوَلْتُم الدَوَاءَ You (m.pl) took the medicine – from تَنَاوَلَ – sukoon is put on the last letter and then تُمْ was added (which is for you m.pl)

There are 3 exceptions (5 if you count dual but I generally dont include dual)

1.For the 3rd person masculine singular – you leave it just like the infinitive (same thing you do for thulaathee mujarrad verbs). Ex:

هَاجَرَ he made hijrah – from the verb هاجر

2.For the 3rd person feminine singular – you simply at تْ to the 3rd person m.sg. (same thing you do for thulaathee mujarrad verbs):

هَاجَرَتْ she made hijrah (emigrated)

3.For the 3rd person m.plural, you put a dammah on the last letter (not sukoon) and add wow and alif (same as you do with thulaathee mujarrad):

هَاجَرُوا They made hijrah

Now the following chart is going to have different forms/wazns (II-X excluding IX because it has a double letter built into its pattern, which makes it more of an irregular verb in the way it is conjugated) with the proper dameer attached

We pretended to be sick تَمَارَضْنَا3   I taught عَلَّمْتُ4
You (m.pl) turned away اِنْقَلَبْتُم5   You (m.sg) met قَابَلْتَ6
You (f.pl) waited 7اِنْتَظَرْتُنَّ   You (f.sg) became Muslim 8أَسْلَمْتِ
They (m) used اِسْتَعْمَلُوا9   He learned تَعَلَّمَ10
They (f) used 11اِسْتَعْمَلْنَ   She learned 12تَعَلَّمَتْ

 

1A verb which has three ROOT letters like ذهب and أذهب and علّم and تعلّم – the ROOT letters for all of these verbs are 3 letters. For the first two verbs, ذهب (dhaal – haa- baa)are the three ROOT letters (and where you would find their meanings in the Hans Wehr Dictionary). For the last two, علم (alif – laam – meem)are the 3 ROOT letters

2Mazeed means there is an increase on the three ROOT letters in the verb. Like for أذهب – the ROOT letters were increased by 1 letter to form this verb (so أذهب is mazeed whereas ذهب is mujarrad). Likewise, تعلّم – the ROOT letters were increased by 2 letters (taa and one of the double letters under the shaddah) تعلّم is mazeed (and also علّم which is increased by 1 letter – the double letter under shaddah) but علم is mujarrad (bare).  See forms charts from here

3From تَمَارَضَ

4From عَلَّمَ

5From اِنْقَلَبَ see 3: 144 for this meaning

6 From قَابَلَ

7From اِنْتَظَرَ

8From أَسْلَمَ

9From اِسْتَعْمَلَ

10From تَعَلَّمَ

11From اِسْتَعْمَلَ

12From تَعَلَّمَ

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Verbs on the pattern of اِسْتَفْعَلَ , regular, present tense

May 12, 2010

Pattern X is gone over in Madinah Book 3, chapter 24

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_10.htm

 

Some of the meaning of this pattern are:

1.Seeking/asking for the root, Ex: اِسْتَعَانَ – to seek help (عون)

2.To consider something/someone to be the root, Ex: اِسْتَعْظَمَ – to consider to be great

For more meanings of this pattern, look at the chart here

Conjugation chart for Pattern X : pattern X saalim

Verbs on the pattern اِفْعَلَّ present tense

May 11, 2010

Pattern IX is used for colors and defects. Example:

اِحْمَرَّ خَالِدٌ Khaalid turned red (blushed).

اِعْوَجَّ العَصَا The stick became crooked

As for verbs with a weak middle letter (like اعوجّ ) then these are conjugated like regular pattern IX verbs. As for verbs with a weak end letter on this pattern, then I have not encountered one so far. Even though اَعْمَى is a blind person (male), I do not see in the Hans Wehr that it is conjugated in pattern IX. One could say عَمِيَ He was (or became) blind (and this is pattern I).

Likewise with the double letter verbs, I haven’t encountered one that is conjugated on pattern IX yet so I do not know if these are conjugated in pattern IX or not. Though some defects do contain double letters, ex أَصَمُّ is a deaf male, however, I did not see in Hans Wehr that it is conjugated on pattern IX. One could say صَمَّ – he became (or was) deaf – and this is pattern I .

That is not to say that being blind or deaf is a defect, this is simply something that Allah has tested some individuals with. And for those who die as Muslims pleasing their Creator, then He will give them the same as everyone else who enters Paradise (including vision and hearing) in the Next Life. And it is said that the Prophet Shu’aib was blind. Also, the Companion Ibn Umm Maktoom was blind, the late scholar Abdul Azeez Bin Baz was blind and the contemporary living scholar Ubayd al Jaabiree is blind. And it is possible there were some deaf companions and scholars as well, but in my limited knowledge, I haven’t run across that yet. One could ask the Scholars about that.

In Madinah Book 3, chapter 24 (which goes over pattern IX  http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_9.htm ), it also includes the mubalaghah form for pattern IX which is اِحْمَارَّ، يَحْمَارُّ – these are two different patterns – one is increased by two letters (one alif and a double letter) and the other by three (two alifs and a double letter). According to the text of Binaa al-Af’aal, اِحْمَارَّ is the intensive for اِحْمَرَّ (refer to Binaa al- Af’aal for an example ). اِحْمَارَّ is conjugated the exact same way as اِحْمَرَّ (except with an extra alif after the meem in each conjugation : نَحْمَارُّ، تَحْمَارُّوْنَ، تَحْمَارِرْنَ etc),

(the first ر in تحماررن has kasrah)

How to conjugate verbs on pattern IX : pattern IX

Verbs on the pattern of اِفْتَعَلَ present tense

May 11, 2010

For possible meanings of form VIII, look here

Form VIII is covered in Madinah Book 3, chapter 23

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_8.htm

 

Something interesting about form VIII is that when the first letter of the root is a certain letter, then the ت in the pattern اِفْتَعَلَ changes to a different letter. Examples (taken from the above link):

زَحَـمَ ازْدَحَم (إذا كانت فاء افْتَعَل دالاً، أو ذالاً، أو زاياً أبدلِتْ تاؤه دالاً).
When the first root letter is ز or د or ذ then theت changes to د
زَانَ …………………… Form these 3 verbs at left on the pattern of ifta’ala keeping in mind the above rule
ذَكَرَ ……………………
دَعَـا ……………………
صَـبَرَ اصْطَبَرَ (إذا كانت فاءُ افْتَعَلَ صاداً، أو ضَاداً، أو طاءً، أو ظاءً أُبْدِلَتْ تاؤه طاءً).
When the first root letter is aص or ض or ط or ظ then the ت changes to ط
صَفَا …………………  Form these 4 verbs at left on the pattern of ifta’ala keeping in mind the above rule
ضرَبَ …………………
ظَلَـمَ ………………
طَلَـعَ …………………
وَقَـي اتَّقى (إذا كانت فاءُ افْتَعَل واواً أُبدلَتْ تاءً)
]When the first root letter is a و then the و itself changes to ت(so you get two taa’s which looks like taa with shaddah تَّ )
وَصَـلَ ……………………  Form these 3 verbs at left on the pattern of ifta’ala keeping in mind the above rule
وَحَـدَ ……………………
وَفِـقَ ……………………

 

To see how regular verbs are conjugated on this pattern, look at this chart : pattern VIII saalim

Verbs on the pattern of اِنْفَعَلَ present tense

May 7, 2010

One of the meanings of this pattern/form is that it is the reflexive of form I

Example: اِنْكَسَرَ الكُوْبُ The cup broke (on its own)

As opposed to: كَسَرْتَ الكُوبَ You (m.sg) broke the cup

See Madinah Book 3, lesson 22

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_7.htm

 

 For more examples of the reflexive for this pattern, go here (p.6) of the file

Chart with conjugation for this pattern: pattern VII saalim

Verbs on the pattern تَفَاعَلَ present tense

May 4, 2010

From the meanings of form VI are:

1.The mutual participation of an action, Ex. : تَعَاوَنَ to help each other

2.Pretending, Ex. : تَنَاوَمَ to pretend to sleep

For more meanings, see the chart here

In the conjugations which have two taa’s, you can drop one of the taa’s ( و لا تَعَاوَنُوا “And don’t help each other upon sin and transgression” 5:2 ta’aawanu, from تَتَعَاوَنُوا )

Click on the following file to learn its conjugation pattern VI saalim

Madinah Book 3, lesson 22 covers this pattern:

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_6.htm

 

verbs on the pattern تَفَعَّلَ , present tense

April 24, 2010

This pattern generally means that you are doing pattern II yourself (or that something else is doing it to itself). For more meanings, look here Ex:

زَوَّجَنِيْ أبِيْ بِنْتَ عَمِّيMy father married me off to my cousin

i.e. He married me to someone else

whereas 

تَزَوَّجْتُ بِنْتَ عَمِّي means I married my cousin

i.e. I myself did the act

Also 

كَسَّرْتُ الزُّجَاجَ  I shattered the glass

whereas 

تَكَسَّرَ الزُّجَاجُ means the glass shattered (on its own)

(Most examples taken from Book 3)

 

Just like with pattern VI, when you have two taa’s on the beginning, you can drop one.  Ex (97:4)

تَنَزَّلُ from تَتَنَزَّلُ

See the following chart for how to conjugate  pattern V saalim

http://www.iu.edu.sa/web/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_5.htm

The above link corresponds to Madinah Book 3, Lesson 20

verbs on the pattern أفْعَلَ , present tense

April 24, 2010

Both forms II and IV generally take the meaning of doing the root to something else.  For more meanings of this pattern, see this file here

Ex: 

دَخَلَ which means to enter

Whereas 

أَدْخَلَ means to make someone/thing enter something else

See the following chart for how to conjugate  pattern IV saalim

http://www.iu.edu.sa/web/spages/edu/syukbah/du3_18.html

This link corresponds to Madinah Book 3 Lesson 17

verbs on the pattern فَاعَلَ , present tense

April 24, 2010

Conveys the meaning of an action shared between two or more such that the doer is the one who initiated the action and the object the one who responded in kind. Ex:

قَاتَلَ زَيْدٌ عَمْراً

Zaid fought with Amr.

Definition and example taken from here

See the following chart for how to conjugate  pattern III saalim

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_4.htm

 

This link corresponds to Madinah Book 3, Lesson 19

verbs on the pattern فَعَّلَ , present tense

April 24, 2010

Both forms II and IV generally take the meaning of doing the root to something else. For more meanings than those mentioned here, see this file

Ex:  عَلِمَ means to know/learn

whereas 

عَلَّمَ means to make someone know/learn (i.e. to teach)

Another meaning is excessiveness/intensifies (mubaalagha)

Ex: 

قَتَلَ to kill

whereas 

قَتَّلَ means to massacre

And it can mean to do the root repeatedly. Ex:

قَطَعَ to cut

whereas 

قَطَّعَ is to maim/cut to pieces

See the following chart for how to conjugate pattern II saalim

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du3_17.html

 

(links updated 7/14/2014)

This above link corresponds to Madinah Book 3, lesson 16

The piece below is taken from Madinah Book 3, lesson 18:

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_3.htm

 

 

يُنْقَلُ الفِعْلُ إلى بَابِ (فَعَّلَ) لِمَعَانٍ مِنْها: التَكْثِيرُ أو المُبَالَغَةُ، نحو:

طَـوَّفَ  أي طَافَ كَثيراً.
قَتَّلَ  أي بَالَغَ في القَتْلِ.
كَسَّـرَ  أي بَالَغَ في الكَسْرِ.
قَطَّـعَ  أي بَالَغَ في القَطْعِ.
عَـدَّدَ  أي عَـدَّ كثيراً
كَسَّرتُ الأقْلامَ.- التكثير  
– كَسَّرْتُ القَلَـمَ. – المبالغة 
في التنـزيل: 
(1) {إنَّ الذين كَذَّبُوا بآياتِنَا واستَكْبَرُوا عَنْها لا تُفَتَّحُ لَهُمْ أبْوابُ السَّماءِ وَلا يَدْخُلُونَ الجَنَّةَ حَتَى يَلجَ الجَمَلُ في سَمِّ الخِيَاطِ}الأعراف/ 40 
 (2) [الّذي جَمَعَ مَالاً وعـدَّدَهُ}[الهـمزة/2 }
 (3) قال: {سَنُقَتِّلُ أَبْناءَهم} الأعراف/127
 (4) وَغَلَّقَتِ الأبْوَابَ}يوسف/23}
 (5) فَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَحَادِيثَ وَمزَّقْنَاهُمْ كُلَّ مُمَزَّقٍ} سبأ/19}
 (6) وإِذْ نَجَّيْنَاكُم مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ العذَابِ، يُذَبحُّونَ أَبنَاءكُم} البقرة/49}

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