Archive for the ‘Passive Voice (Majhool)’ Category

Touching on the Passive Voice

December 17, 2014

Sometimes verbs have an active voice (مَعْلُوْم )

and sometimes a passive voice ( مَجْهُوْل ).

When verbs have an active voice,

the Doer of the action is mentioned.

In the passive voice, the one receiving

the action is mentioned, but the one

who did the action is not mentioned.

For example:

خَلَقَ he created (active voice) – we know

the doer of the action here is “he”

خُلِقَ he was created (passive voice) – we

know now that “he” is the one receiving the

action, but the one who did the action

is not mentioned.

Likewise: خَلَقْتُ (ma’loom) – I created

As opposed to:

خُلِقْتُ (majhool) – I WAS created

Also: وَلَدْتُ I gave birth

As opposed to:

وُلِدْتُ I was born

And in the Quran:

أَفَلَا يَنظُرُونَ إِلَى الْإِبِلِ

كَيْفَ خُلِقَتْ

-88:17:00

And an example of an irregular verb:

بَنَى, يَبْنِي

We have the active form in the hadeeth:

مَنْ بَنَى لله مَسْجِدًا

بَنَى اللهُ لَهُ بَيْتًا في الجنة

Whoever builds a masjid for the sake of Allaah,

Allaah will build for him a house in Paradise

And we have the passive form in the hadeeth:

بُنِيَ الإسْلَامُ عَلى خَمْسٍ

Islaam is built upon five…

So that is how the past tense majhool (passive)

is formed for thulaathee mujarrad verbs.

As for the present tense majhool

for thulaathee mujarrad,

then observe the following:

يَسْأَلُ (ma’loom) he asks

As opposed to:

يُسْأَلُ (majhool) he IS asked

And in the verse:

لَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ

{21:23}

He wont be asked about what He does,

but they will be asked

The following is part of 2 charts taken from

Madinah Book 3, chapter 3

Going over the active (ma’loom) voice

And passive (majhool) voice

In both the past tense (maadi)

And the present (mudaari’) tense

جدول الفعل الماضي

الفعل المبني للمجهول

الفعل المبني للمعلوم

سُئِلَ

سَأَلَه المدرسُ

سُئِلوا

سَأَلَهم المدرسُ

سُئِلَتْ

سأَلَها الأبُ

سُئِلْنَ

سأَلهُنَّ الأبُ

سُئِلْتَ

سَأَلَكَ المدرسُ

سُئِلْتُمْ

سَأَلَكُم المدرسُ

سُئِلْتِ

سَأَلَكِ الأبُ

سُئِلْتُنَّ

سَأَلَكُنَّ الأبُ

سُئِلْتُ

سَأَلَنِي المدرسُ

سُئِلْنَا

سَأَلنَا المدرسُ

جدول الفعل المضارع

الفعل المبني للمجهول

الفعل المبني للمعلوم

يُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلهُ المدرسُ

يُسْأَلُونَ

يَسْأَلُهم المدرسُ

تُسْأَل

يَسْأَلُها الأبُ

يُسْأَلْنَ

يَسْأَلُهُنَّ الأبُ

تُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلُكَ المدرسُ

تُسْأَلُونَ

يَسْأَلُكُمُ المدرسُ

تُسْأَلِيْنَ

يَسْأَلُكِ الأبُ

تُسْأَلْنَ

يَسْأَلُكُنَّ الأبُ

أُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلُنِي المدرسُ

نُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلُنا المدرسُ

Here are some examples of the passive

voice for some of the mazeed verbs:

Form II

عَلَّمَ he taught (ma’loom)

As opposed to:

عُلِّمَ he was taught (majhool)

عَلَّمْتُ I taught

عُلِّمْتُ I was taught

In the present tense:

أُعَلِّمُ I teach

أُعَلَّمُ I am being taught

Form III

قَابَلَ he met

As opposed to:

قُوْبِلَ he was made to meet

And for the irregular verb نَادَى (the meaning

is دَعَا – to call or to call upon).

Here it is in active (ma’loom) form:

وَزَكَرِيَّا إِذْ نَادَى رَبَّهُ

{21:89}

And Zakariyyah, when he called upon his Lord

And here it is in passive (majhool) form:

فَلَمَّا جَاءهَا نُودِيَ

{27:8}

So when he came, he was called

Form IV

أَنْزَلَ he sent down

As opposed to:

أُنْزِلَ it was sent down

And in the Quran:

كِتَابٌ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ

{7:2}

A book sent down to you

As for the irregular verb أَلْقَى (to throw),

فَأَلْقَى مُوسَى عَصَاهُ

{26:45}

So Musa threw his stick

is in the passive أُلْقِيَ

فَأُلْقِيَ السَّحَرَةُ سَاجِدِينَ

{26:46}

So the sorcerers were thrown down, prostrating

Another irregular IV verb which is used often:

ءَاتَى (or آتَى ) “to give”

وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا

{19:12}

And We gave him wisdom while he was a young child

In the passive, changes to أُوْتِيَ

وَمَن يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيراً

{2:269}

And whoever is given hikmah has indeed been given an abundance of good

وَأُوتِيَتْ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ

{27:23}

and she has been given…

Exercises

Pick the passive verbs (past or present tense)

out of the following verses:

1.{88:18-20}

2.{27:8}

فَلَمَّا جَاءهَا نُودِيَ أَن بُورِكَ

مَن فِي النَّارِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا

3.{25:3}

وَاتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ آلِهَةً

لَّا يَخْلُقُونَ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ

4.{40:12}

ذَلِكُم بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِيَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ كَفَرْتُمْ

وَإِن يُشْرَكْ بِهِ تُؤْمِنُوا

فَالْحُكْمُ لِلَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْكَبِيرِ

5.{27:46}

قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لِمَ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ قَبْلَ

الْحَسَنَةِ لَوْلَا تَسْتَغْفِرُونَ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

6.{27:47}

قَالُوا اطَّيَّرْنَا بِكَ وَبِمَن مَّعَكَ

قَالَ طَائِرُكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ

بَلْ أَنتُمْ قَوْمٌ تُفْتَنُونَ

7.{27:65}

قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ

وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ

وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُونَ

8.{28:41}

وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ

وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يُنصَرُونَ

9.{28:70}

وَهُوَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ

لَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْأُولَى وَالْآخِرَةِ

وَلَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

10.{19:33}

وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَيَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدتُّ

وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيًّا

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