Archive for the ‘Scholars’ Category

Biography for Imam ash Shaafi’ee

April 6, 2012

Taken from:


Imaam Ash-Shaafi’ee [d.204H]

His Name and Lineage
He was Mohammad bin Idrees bin Al ‘Abbaas bin ‘Uthmaan bin Shaafi’ bin Saa’ib bin ‘Ubayd bin ‘Abd-Yazeed bin Haashim bin Al Muttalib bin ‘Abd-Manaaf bin Qusay bin Kilaab bin Murrah bin Ka’ab bin Lu’ayy bin Ghaalib. The Imaam, the Scholar of his time, the Protector of Hadeeth, the Faqeeh (jurist) of the religion; Aboo Abdillaah Al Qurashee then Mutallabee Ash-Shaafi’ee Al Makkee, Al Ghazzee by birth, a relative of the Messenger of Allaah and a son of his uncle, as Muttalib is the brother of Haashim who is the father of ‘Abdul-Muttalib.

His Birth and Early Years There is an agreement that the birth of the Imaam was in Ghazzah, his father died whilst still at a young age, so Mohammad grew up as an orphan living with his mother. She feared illness upon him so she took him back to his homeland whilst he was two years of age.
Nasr bin Makkee said that Ibn ‘Abdil Hakam said that Ash-Shaafi’ee said to me, ‘I was born in Ghazzah in the year 150 Hijrah and my mother took me to Makkah when I was two years of age.’
Al Haafidh Ibn Hajar mentions in At-Tahdheeb: Ibn Abee Haatim said, my father narrated to us that he heard ‘Amr bin Sawaad say: Ash-Shaafi’ee said to me, ‘I was born in the city of ‘Asqalaan, so when I was two years old, my mother took me to Makkah and I had a great desire for two things – for archery and for seeking knowledge. So I took up archery until I would hit on target ten out of ten shots that I would fire’’- (‘Amr bin Sawaad said) but he remained quiet concerning knowledge, so I said to him, ‘By Allaah, you have acquired a greater amount by way of knowledge than that of archery.’”
So he grew up in Makkah, whilst at the same time taking up archery, such, that he surpassed his contemporaries in it, and began shooting correctly at the target nine out of every ten arrows fired.
He also began the study of Arabic and of poetry and likewise began to excel in them and became renowned. Then he became greatly attracted to Al Fiqh, such that he would be the lead in it for the people of his time.

His Teachers Adh-Dhahabee says, ‘he took knowledge from his country from the likes of:
1. Muslim bin Khaalid Az-Zanjee – the Mufti of Makkah,
2. Sufyaan bin ‘Uyaynah,
3. ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Abee Bakar Al Mulaykah,
4. Fudayl bin ‘Iyaad and a number of others.’

Those he Narrated from Al Haafidh says, ‘he narrated from:
1. Maalik bin Anas,
2. Ibraheem bin Sa’ad,
3. Ad-Daawardee,
4. ‘Abdul-Wahhaab Ath-Thaqafee,
5. Ibn ‘Ulayyah,
6. Ibraheem bin Mohammad bin Abee Yahyaa,
7. Hishaam bin Yousuf As-San’aanee and others.’

His Studies Adh-Dhahabee says, Ahmad bin Ibraheem At-Taa’ee Al Aqtaa said, Al Muzanee narrated to us that he heard Ash-Shaafi’ee say, ‘I memorised the Qur’aan whilst I was still seven years of age, and I memorised Al Muwatta when I was ten years of age.’
Humaydee said, I heard Ash-Shaafi’ee say, ‘I used to be an orphan living with my mother, but she did not have enough (money) to suffice what was needed to give to my teachers, so my teacher used to allow me to stand in for him over the children when he was away, so I could gain a reduction from him.’
From Ash-Shaafi’ee that he said, ‘I came to Maalik (bin Anas) when I was thirteen years of age (Adh-Dhahabee says this is how it has been said but what is apparent is that he was twenty three years of age), so I went to the son of one of my uncles who was the governor of Al Madeenah, so he spoke to Maalik, so he said to him find someone who will read to you so I said I will read, so I used to read upon him, and sometimes he would have mentioned something during the course of it that had passed, so he would ask me to repeat it, so I would repeat it from memory. So it was as if that would amaze him, then I asked him concerning an issue and he answered to it, then I asked him again concerning another issue so he said, “you would love to become a judge” (i.e due to his enthusiasm for these issues).’

His Worship From Mohammad bin Bishr Al Akaree and other than him who said, Ar-Rabee’ bin Sulaymaan narrated to us saying, ‘Ash-Shaafi’ee used to divide the hours of the night. So in the first third of it he would write and in the second part he would pray and in the last third he would sleep.’
Dhahabee says, ‘I say all three of his actions are considered worship, as long as the intention is present.’
Zakariyyah As-Saajee said Mohammad bin Isma’eel narrated to us saying Husayn Al Karabeesee narrated to me saying, ‘I stayed with Ash-Shaafi’ee for a night, so he would pray for about a third of the night, so I would not see that he would exceed reading more than fifty verses, but if he increased, then he would read a hundred verses, and he would not come across a verse relating to mercy except that he would ask Allaah (for it) and he would not come across a verse relating to a form of punishment except that he would seek refuge (from it) and it was as if both hope and longing as well as dread had been gathered together for him.’

His Stance against Innovation and Innovators • Mohammad bin Yahyaa bin Aadam said Ibn ‘Abd-Al Hakam narrated to us saying I heard Ash-Shaafi’ee saying, ‘if the people truly knew of what is found in Al Kalaam (theological rhetoric) and innovations, then they would flee from it just as they would flee from a lion.’
• ‘Abdullaah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal reports saying, I heard Mohammad bin Dawood saying: ‘It has not been recorded that during the whole lifetime of Ash-Shaafi’ee, that he spoke from anything relating to innovated desires, nor was anything of the sort ever attributed to him, nor was he ever known for it, even though he had severe hatred for the people of Kalaam (rhetoric) and innovation.’
• From Ibn Abee Haatim who said, Yunus narrated to us saying, I said to Ash-Shaafi’ee, ‘our companion Al-Layth says, “If I saw a person of desires walking upon water I would not take from him.” So he said, ‘rather he fell short, if I saw him walking in thin air I would not take from him.’
• Az-Za’faraanee and others said we heard Ash-Shaafi’ee say, ‘My verdict concerning the people of Kalaam is that they should be whipped with Jareed (palm branches stripped of their leaves), then they should be mounted onto camels, and paraded throughout the district and that it be called out: ‘this is the reward for those who abandoned The Book and The Sunnah, and turned their attention instead to Kalaam.’
• Zakariyyaa As-Saajee said Ahmad Ibn Al ‘Abbaas An-Nasaa’ee narrated to us saying, I heard Az-Za’faraanee saying, that I heard Ash-Shaafi’ee saying, ‘I have never had a dispute with anyone over the issue of Kalaam except once, and even from that I seek the forgiveness of Allaah.’
• Mohammad bin Ishaaq bin Khuzaymah said, I heard Ar-Rabee’ saying, ‘whilst Ash-Shaafi’ee was advising Hafs Al Fard, Hafs said, “The Qur’aan is created.” So Ash-Shaafi’ee replied to him, “you have disbelieved in Allaah the Great.”’
• As-Saajee said, Ibraheem bin Ziyaad Al ‘Ubalee narrated to us, saying I heard Al Buwaytee saying, I asked Ash-Shaafi’ee, ‘Should I pray behind a Raafidee?’ So he said, ‘No, do not pray behind a Raafidee, nor behind a Qadaree, nor behind a Murji’ee.’ So I said: ‘describe them to us’, so he said, ‘whoever says “that Eemaan is only in statement”, then he is a Murji’ee, and whoever says, “Aboo Bakr and ‘Umar were not Imaams”, then he is a Raafidee, and whoever attributes Will (decree) to himself, then he is a Qadaree.’
• Az-Zubayr bin ‘Abdul-Waahid said: ‘Alee bin Mohammad informed us in Egypt, saying, Mohammad bin ‘Abdil-illaah bin ‘Abdil-Hakam said, ‘after Ash-Shaafi’ee debated Hafs Al Fard he acquired a great hate for Kalaam, and he used to say, “By Allaah, for a Scholar to issue a verdict, and then it be said about him, that the scholar has made a mistake, is better for him, than that he should speak with something and it be said of him: Zindeeq (evil heretic), and there is nothing more hateful to me than Kalaam and its people.”’

His Intellect • ‘Alee bin Mohammad bin Abaan Al Qaadhee said, Aboo Yahyaa Zakariyyaa As-Saajee narrated to us, saying Al Muzanee narrated to us saying, ‘If there was anybody that could bring out my innermost conscience, and that which is related to the perilous belief I had with regard to the issue of Tawheed, then it would be Ash-Shaafi’ee. So I went to him, and I found him in Masjid Misr, so I knelt down on my knees in front of him and said, “there has come to my mind an issue with regards to Tawheed, and I know that nobody has the knowledge which you have, so what do you have?’(i.e with regards to this issue)”, so he became angry, then said, “do you know where you are?”, so I said, “yes.” He then said, “this is the place where Allaah caused Fir’awn (Pharoah) to drown. Has it ever reached you that the Messenger of Allaah commanded us with asking of such an issue?” I said, “no” then he said, “did the Companions ever speak about it?” I said, “no”, he then said, “do you know how many stars there are in the heavens?” I said, “no”, to which he said, “taking anyone of those stars into account do you know its type? Its height? Its setting? Or from what materials it was created?” I said, “no” so he said, “so how then, is there something from the creation that you can see with your naked eye that you have no knowledge of, and yet you speak concerning the knowledge of its Creator?!”
Then he asked me about an issue relating to Wudoo, and I erred with regards to answering it, so he himself answered it from four different angles, and I did not even answer the like of any of them, thereafter he said something that you are dependent upon five times a day – you leave off knowledge regarding it, and you burden yourself with the knowledge of the Creator, if there comes to your mind the like of that, then return to Allaah, and to His saying the Most High: “And your Lord is One, there is nothing worthy of worship other than Him, He is Ar-Rahmaan Ar-Raheem. Indeed there in the creation of the heavens and the earth.” [Al Baqarah: 163-164]
So he proved through the creation, that there is a creator, so do not burden yourself with knowledge that your ‘Aql (intellect) cannot reach’. He said (i.e al-Muzanee): ‘So I repented from that.’
• Ibraaheem bin ‘Alee Al ‘Aabid informed us in his book, that Zakariyyah Al Albaa and others informed us, saying, ‘Abdul-Awwal bin ‘Eesaa informed us saying, Shaykh-ul-Islaam Aboo Isma’eel Al Harawee informed us, saying, Ya’qoob benefited me, and this is something which I copied from his own handwriting, that Aboo ‘Alee Al Khaalidee informed us, saying, I heard Mohammad Ibnul Husayn Az-Za’faraanee saying, I heard ‘Uthmaan bin Sa’eed bin Bashaar Al Anmaatee say, I heard Al Muzanee say, ‘I used to look into Kalaam before Ash-Shaafi’ee came, so when he came, I went to him, and I asked him about an issue from the issues of Kalaam, so he said to me, “do you know where you are?” I said, “yes, in the Masjid of Al Fustaat”, so he said to me, “you are in Taraan, (‘Uthmaan said, and Taraan is a place on the Red sea, a ship is barely able to survive its waters)”, so he asked me about an issue in Fiqh, so I answered it, then he entered into it something which distorted my answer, so I answered again, then he entered something into it which again distorted my answer, such, that every time I would answer with anything, he would distort it somehow, then he said to me, “this is the Fiqh which contains The Book and The Sunnah, and the statements of the people (scholars), the likes of these things can enter into them, (and distort them) so how about speaking with regards to the Lord of the Creation, in which there is much erring to be found”. So I abandoned Kalaam, and turned my attention instead to Al Fiqh.’
• Harmalah said, ‘Ash-Shaafi’ee was asked concerning a man who had a date in his mouth, then said, “if I swallow it (the date) then my wife is to be divorced, and if I spit it (the date) out, then my wife is to be divorced”. So he (Ash-Shaafi’ee) replied, “he should eat half of it and spit the other half out.”’

His Fearfullness of Allaah Az-Zubayr bin ‘Abdul-Waahid said, Mohammad bin ‘Aqeel Al Firyaanee narrated to us saying, Al Muzanee or Ar-Rabee’ said, ‘We were with Ash-Shaafi’ee one day, when there came to him a Shaykh who was wearing a woollen garment, and he had in his hand a staff, so Ash-Shaafi’ee stood up for him, and straightened out his clothes, the Shaykh then gave Salaam and sat down. So Ash-Shaafi’ee began looking at the Shaykh out of awe of him, at which point the Shaykh said, “can I ask?” So he (i.e Ash-Shaafi’ee) replied, “ask”, so he said, “what are the proofs that we use in the religion of Allaah?”

So he said, “the Book of Allaah”, so the Shaykh said, “and what else?”, he replied, ‘”he Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger”, so he said, “and what else?” so he replied, “{the agreement of the Ummah”. The Shaykh said, “from where have you taken the aspect of the agreement of the Ummah?” So Ash-Shaafi’ee began thinking deeply, after which the Shaykh said, “I give you three days (to think about it), so either you come with a proof for what you said from the Book of Allaah, or otherwise you should repent to Allaah.” So the colour on Ash-Shaafi’ee’s face changed, then he (Ash-Shaafi’ee) got up and left and he did not come out of his house until the third day between Dhuhr and ‘Asr. While at the same time his face, and his hands and his legs looked swollen, and he looked sickly, so he sat down, and it was not long before the Shaykh arrived, who gave Salaam and sat down, then said, “where is my requirement?” so Ash-Shaafi’ee said, “yes, I seek refuge with Allaah from the Shaytaan the accursed, Allaah The Most High says: “And whomsoever opposes the Messenger after the guidance has become clear to him, and he follows a path other than the path of the believers, then we shall leave him to that which he turned to” [An-Nisaa’: 115]. So he would not burn this individual for going against the path of the believers, except that it was an obligation (i.e which he left out).” So the Shaykh said, “you have spoken truthfully”, then he stood up and left. So Ash-Shaafi’ee said, “I read the Qur’aan each day and night three times until I decided upon it.”’

Scholar’s Praise for him • Al Haarith bin As-Surayj said, I heard Yahyaa Al Qattaan saying: ‘I make supplication to Allaah for Ash-Shaafi’ee I specify him in it.’
• Aboo Bakr Khallaad said, ‘I make supplication to Allaah for Ash-Shaafi’ee at the end of my prayer.’
• Mohammad bin Haroon Az-Zanjee said, ‘Abdullaah bin Ahmad narrated to us saying, ‘I said to my father, “what kind of man was Ash-Shaafi’ee? As I have heard you make a great amount of supplication for him”, so he said, “O My son, he used to be like how the sun is for the earth, as a vitality for the people, so is there for any of these two a successor or from the two any like?”’
• Qutaybah bin Sa’eed said, ‘Ash-Shaafi’ee is an Imaam.’
• Al Maymoonee said, I heard Ahmad bin Hanbal saying, ‘There are six individuals for whom I make supplication for in the last part of the night, one of them is Ash-Shaafi’ee.’
• Ahmad bin Hanbal said, in varying chains of narration from him, ‘Indeed Allaah destines for the people at the head of every one hundred years someone who will teach them the Sunan. Someone who will remove from the Messenger of Allaah any lies attributed to him, so when we looked at the end of the first one hundred years and there was ‘Umar bin ‘Abdil ‘Azeez, and at head of the second one hundred years there was Ash-Shaafi’ee.’
• Aboo Thawr Al Kalbee said: ‘I have not seen the like of Ash-Shaafi’ee, nor has he seen the like of himself.’
• Ayyoob bin Suwayd said: ‘I never thought that I would live to see the like of Ash-Shaafi’ee.’
• Yoonus As-Sadafee said, ‘I have not seen anybody more perfect in intellect than Ash-Shaafi’ee, I had a debate with him one day regarding an issue, thereafter we parted. Then he met me again, so he took me by the hand then said, “O Abaa Moosaa, can it not be that we remain brothers even if we differ in an issue.”’ • I say (Dhahabee): ‘This is a proof of the completeness of the intellect of this Imaam, and his understanding of his own soul, as the contemporaries (equals/peers) do not cease to differ.’
• Ma’mar bin Shabeeb said, I heard Ma’moon saying, ‘I put Mohammad bin Idrees to test in everything, and I found him at the end of it to be undivided.’
• Dawood bin ‘Alee said, I heard Ibn Raahawayh (Ishaaq bin Raahawayh) saying, ‘I never knew that Ash-Shaafi’ee was at this distinction, if I had known of it, I would never have left him.’
• Aboo Dawood As-Sijistaanee said, ‘I do not know Ash-Shaafi’ee to have made a single error in Hadeeth.’
• Ibraheem bin Abee Taalib Al Haafidh said, ‘I asked Abaa Qudaamah As-Sarikhsee concerning: Ash-Shaafi’ee and Ahmad, and Abee ‘Ubayd, and Ibn Raahawayh, so he said, “Ash-Shaafi’ee is the most perceptive of them.”’
• ‘Abdullaah bin Naajiyah Al Haafidh said, I heard Ibn Waarah saying, ‘I came back from Egypt, so I went to Ahmad bin Hanbal, so he said to me, “did you copy out the books of Ash-Shaafi’ee?” I said, “no” so he said, “you were neglectful, we did not know the general (principles) from the specific ones, nor did we know which Hadeeth were abrogated from those Hadeeth which abrogate others, all this we did not know, until we sat with Ash-Shaafi’ee.” So that inspired me to return to Egypt, after which I began writing them out.’
• Mohammad bin Ya’qoob Al Farajee said, I heard ‘Alee Al Madeenee saying, ‘Upon you are the books of Ash-Shaafi’ee.’
• Aboo Bakr As-Sawma’ee said, I heard Ahmad bin Hanbal saying: ‘The companion of Hadeeth can never become quenched by the books of Ash-Shaafi’ee.’
• Ahmad bin Salamah An-Naysaabooree said, ‘Ishaaq bin Rahawayh married a women whose husband had died, but he had possessed the books of Ash-Shaafi’ee, he (Ishaaq) did not marry her except for those books.’ • Aboo Moosaa Ad-Dareer was asked regarding the books of Ash-Shaaf’ee as to how they became so widespread amongst the people, so he said, ‘Allaah chose him for His knowledge, then He raised him.’
• Ishaaq bin Raahawayh was asked how it was that Ash-Shaafiee authored all those books yet his age was not very much, so he said, ‘Allaah gathered for him his ‘Aql (intellect), despite the shortness of his age.’

His Sayings • Ash-Shaafi’ee said, ‘Knowledge is what benefits, knowledge is not what is merely memorised.’
• Aboo ‘Alee bin Hakamaan said, Ahmad bin Mohammad bin Haaroon Al Hamadaanee Al ‘Adl narrated to us, that Aboo Muslim Al Kajjee narrated to us saying, Al Asma’ee narrated to us from Ash-Shaafi’ee, that he said, ‘The core of knowledge, is steadfastness, and its fruit is security, and the core of cautiousness is contentment, and its fruit is tranquillity, and the core of patience is to be resolute, and its fruit is triumph, and the core of actions is ability, and its fruit is success, and the goal in each and every affair is truthfulness.’’
• Aboo Thawr said, I heard Ash-Shaafi’ee say, ‘It befits the Faqeeh (jurist), that he should place some soil onto his head out of humbleness to Allaah, and out of thanks to Allaah.’
• Ar-Rabee’ said, Ash-Shaafi’ee said to me, ‘If the Fuqahaa (jurists and people of knowledge) are not the Awliyaa (loyal and devoted ones) of Allaah, then Allaah has no Walee.’
• Hurmulah said, I heard Ash-Shaafi’ee say, ‘I would love that all the knowledge that I have learnt, that I should teach the people, so that I would get the reward, and they would not praise me for it.’
• It has been reported through two chains from Ash-Shaafi’ee, that he said, ‘If I see a man the companions of Hadeeth, then it is as if I am seeing a companion of the Prophet, may Allaah reward them with all good, they protected for us the Asl (origin/foundation), so they have excellence over us.’
• Yoonus bin ‘Abdil-A’laa said, Ash-Shaafi’ee said to me, ‘Pleasing the people is a goal you will never reach, and there is no way to ensure security from them, so upon you be that which will benefit you, then adhere to that.’
• From Ash-Shaafi’ee that he said, ‘The sign of a true friend, is that he behaves to the friend of his friend as a friend.’ • From Ash-Shaafi’ee that he said, ‘The most elevated of people in status, are those who do not recognise from themselves any status, and those of them who possess the most excellence are those who do not see their excellence.’

His Madh-hab • From Ash-Shaafi’ee who said, ‘If you see in any of my books that which is contradictory to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah, then speak with that, and leave alone what I said.’
• Al Humaydee said, ‘Ash-Shaafi’ee narrated a Hadeeth one day, so I said to him, “are you going to take that? (i.e as a means of practice)”, so he said, “did you see me coming out from a church, or do you see upon me a Zunnaar (the waist belt of the Christians and Magians) that I should hear a Hadeeth from the Messenger of Allaah and that I should not speak with it?!”’’
• It has been narrated that he said, ‘If a Hadeeth is proven to be authentic, then it is my Madh-hab, and if the Hadeeth is proven authentic, then throw my saying against the wall.’
• Ar-Rabee’ said, I heard him (Ash-Shaafi’ee) say after a man had said to him, ‘do you take this Hadeeth O Abaa Abdillaah?’, so he said, ‘when I narrate a Hadeeth from the Messenger of Allaah, which is an authentic Hadeeth, and that I do not take it, then you should bear witness that my ‘Aql (intellect) has gone.’

His Death Al Haafidh says in At-Tahdheeb: Ibn Abee Haatim said, ‘’Abd Al-Hakam narrated to us, saying that Ash-Shaafi’ee was born in the year 150H, and died in the last day of Rajab in the year 204H more than one person have written historical accounts of him, and his outstanding virtues and excellence are very many.
Ibn Abee Haatim and Zakariyyaa As-Saajee and Al Haakim and Al Bayhaqee and Al Harawee and Ibn Asaakir and others have gathered them.

Taken from:
Siyar A’laam An-Nubalaa of Imaam Adh-Dhahabee, publisher: Mu’asasa Ar-Risaalah [Vol. 10, Pg: 5-99]
Tahdheeb At-Tahdheeb of Al Haafidh Ibn Hajar Al ‘Asqalaanee, publisher: Hindiyyah Hyderabad – Deccan [Vol. 9, Pg: 25-31]
[Taken and adapted from]


Small Biographies of the Salaf

September 4, 2011

Taken from:

Small Biographies Of The Salaf

Brief Biographies of some of the People of Knowledge Taken from Siyaar ‘Alaam an-Nubalaa & Thahdheeb at Thahdheeb And other works Compiled & Translated By Abbas Abu Yahya

From the People of Knowledge
The Khalifah Umar bin AbdulAzeez He was the Khalifah and great Imaam Umar bin AbdulAzeez ibn Marwan bin al- Hakm bin Abee al-Aas, his kunya was Abu Hafs and he was from the Quraish. His mother was the granddaughter of Umar bin al-Khattab. He was born in 63 A.H. and passed away in the year 101A.H.

Narrated by AbdulAzeez bin Yazeed al-‘Aylee who said : Sulaiman did Hajj & Umar bin AbdulAzeez was with him, it started to thunder & lightening struck so much that their hearts nearly came out, so Sulaiman said, Abu Hafs, have you ever seen a night like this or even heard of one like this? He answered: O Ameer al-Mumneen! This is the sound of the mercy of Allaah, so how would it be if you heard the sound of the punishment of Allaah! ?

Al-‘Awza’ee said : Umar bin AbdulAzeez wrote a letter to us, no one memorized it except me and Makhool : ‘To proceed, indeed whoever remembers death a lot, then he is pleased with little in this world, and he who adds his speech in comparison to his action, then he lessens his speech except with that which will benefit him and as- salaam.’

Sufyaan bin Saeed ath-Thawree -Rahimullaah
Sufyaan bin Saeed ath-Thawree (161 A.H.) was born in Koofah in a place called Thawr, his kunya is Abu Abdullaah, he narrated many ahadeeth and many scholars say that he was the Ameer ul Mumineen of hadeeth of his time. His father was also a great Muhaddith (Scholar of hadeeth).

Abdullaah ibn Mubarak -Rahimullaah- said: ‘I wrote hadeeth from over 1,100 Shaykhs and I didn’t write from anyone better than Sufyaan.
Sufyaan ath-Thawree said: The Angels are the guardians of the heavens & the Companions of hadeeth (as-haabul hadeeth) are the guardians in the earth.
Refer to Thahdheeb at thahdheeb by Ibn Hajar 2/56 & Siyaar ‘Alaam an-Nubalaa by adh-Dhahabee 7/229.

Maalik ibn Anas -Rahimullaah
Maalik ibn Anas ibn Aamir was born in Madeenah in 93 A.H. & died in 179 A.H. His kunya was Abu Abdullaah, he had the famous title of ‘Imaam Dar ul Hijrah’ which means Madeenah. His grandfather Aamir was from amongst the major Companions. He was a Muhadith and a Faqih.

He taught hadeeth in Madeenah for 40 years. He did not want his famous book al- Muwatta to become the only book that was relied upon.

Abdullaah bin al-Mubarak -Rahimullaah
Abdullaah bin al-Mubarak al-Hanzaalee at-Tameemee the great Imaam, AbdulAzeez bin Abee Rizma’ said : There’s no characteristic from the good characteristics except that it was combined in Abdullaah bin al-Mubarak, shyness, hospitality, good behaviour, a good companionship, it is good to sit with him, Zuhud and piety and in everything.
He passed away -Rahimullaah- in 181 A.H.

Imaam Shaafiee -Rahimullaah
Imaam Shaafiee was born in 150 A.H. and grew up in Makkah. He was a beautiful man. Ibn Abdul Barr -Rahimullaah- mentions that he had memorised the Qur’aan by the age 7 and memorised al-Muwatta by 10 years of age, and was giving legal verdicts from 15 years of age.
His ancestry goes back to the Prophet -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- (his grandfather al-Muttalib was the brother of the grandfather of the Prophet.) At the age of 20 he began studying with Imaam Maalik in Madina until Imaam Maalik -Rahimullaah-passed away.

Imaam Ahmad -Rahimullaah- was also his student. He died in 204 A.H. in old Cairo, due to injuries from being stabbed.

Yahya bin Ma’een -Rahimullaah
Abu Zakariya, Yahya bin Ma’een bin ‘Awn al-Ghatfaanee. It is said that Yahya’s father left Yahya a million dirham in inhaeritance, and Yahya spent all of it in the field of Hadeeth until he did not have shoes to wear.

He was the elder of his peers, from the likes of ‘Alee bin Madeenee, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ishaaq bin Rah’wayaa & Abu Bakr bin Abee Shayba -Rahimhumullaah.
A man came to Imaam Ahmad & said : O Aba Abdillaah, look at these ahaadeeth indeed there is a mistake in them. SoImaamAhmadsaid:GotoAbuZakariya,for indeed he knows the mistake.

Imaam Ahmad said about Yahya bin Ma’een: Here is a man that Allaah created for this matter, he exposes the lies of the liars.
He died in the year 233 A.H.

Abu Zura’h ar-Razee -Rahimullaah
Abu Zura’h, UbaidAllaah bin ‘AbdulKareem bin Yazeed al-Qurashee ar-Razee. He started travelling for knowledge when he was 13 years of age, and on his second journey he was away for 14 yrs.

Imaam adh-Dahabee said: He was unique of his time, in memory power, intelligence, and in the Deen, sincerity and knowledge and action.

Yahya bin Manda said: It is said that Abu Huraira -Radi Allaahu anhu- had the most powerful memory from this Ummah, then it is Abu Zura’h ar-Razee.
Abu Hatim said: If you saw ar-Razee and others hating Abu Zura’h then know that person is a mubtadi’.

He passed away to the mercy of Allaah in 264 A.H.

Abu Hatim ar-Raazee -Rahimullaah
Abu Hatim, Muhammad bin Idrees bin al-Mundhir al-Qhatfaanee ar-Raazee, who died in 277 A.H.
He first started to memorize narrations when he was 14 years old, he was so knowledgeable that by just looking at the hadeeth he could give a judgement on it, whether it was authentic or not.

Abu Hatim and Abu Zura’h were good friends.
Imaam adh-Dahabee said: If Abu Hatim says someone is thiqa’ (trustworthy), then hold onto his saying, because he does not make anyone thiqa’ (trustworthy) except a narrator who has authentic hadeeth.

an-Nisaa’ee -Rahimullaah
Abu AbdurRahmaan Ahmad bin Shuaib bin ‘Alee al-Khurasaanee an-Nisaa’ee, who died in the year 303 A.H.

It is said that the town from which an-Nisaa’ee came from, was named Nisa’ which means women, and the story behind it’s name is because when the Muslims came to conquer it during the earlier period of Islaam, the men were not present in the town, so the women came out to fight, when the Muslims saw that, they did not fight, because women are not fought against.

Ibn Katheer mentions that Imaam an-Nisaa’ee was very beautiful and his face was like a candle.

He started travelling for knowledge at a young age. Ibn ‘Adee said: I heard Mansoor the Faqhiee and Abu Jafar at-Tahawee say: Abu AbdurRahmaan is a Imaam from the Imaams of the Muslims.

Abu Ya’ala al-Khaleelee said: That his book is added to the books of al-Bukharee, Muslim and Abu Dawood, …and his opinion in Jarh wa Ta’deel (praising and criticising narrators) is relied upon.

He was very strict and firm in Jarh wa Ta’deel (praising and criticising narrators). He – Rahimullaah- died in Makkah and was buried there.
ad-Daraqutni -Rahimullaah

He is the great scholar of Hadeeth, who has collected a ‘Sunaan’ his name is Abul- Hasan, ‘Alee bin Umar bin Ahmad ad-Daraqutni, who died in the year 385 A.H. at the age of 80 years.

He had a tremendous memory, Raja’ bin Muhammad al-Mu’adl said: I said to Daraqutni: ‘Have you ever seen anyone like yourself?’ and he replied that Allaah says : ‘Do not praise your selves.’ Then al-Mu’adl said I leaned towards him and said: ‘I have not seen anyone gather what you have gathered.’

Adh-Dhahabee said: ‘This man never entered into philosophy nor debating, nor did he investigate it but rather he was a Salafee.’

Ibn Salaah -Rahimullaah
He is Ibn Taqi ud-Deen Uthmaan bin Abdurrahman Salaah ud-Deen, He died in 643 A.H. he was a great scholar of hadeeth, especially in the field of the science of hadeeth, Imaam ad-Dhahbee said: ‘He was a Salafee, he had a correct creed, not entering into the ta’weel (interpolation) of the philosophers, he believed in what was established from the texts, neither going too deep, nor over bound.’

Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah -Rahimullaah
Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah Taqi ud-Deen Abul-‘Abbaas Ahmad Ibn ‘Abdul- Haleem Ibn ‘Abdus-Salaam Ibn Taymeeyah al-Harraanee al-Hanbalee, was born on Monday the 10th of Rabi’ al-Awwal 66l A.H. at Harraan (northern Iraq).
His grandfather, Abu al-Barkat Majd-ud-Deen ibn Taymeeyah (d.653AH) was a reputed teacher of the Hanbalee School Damascus was the centre of Islaamic studies at that time, and Ahmad Ibn Taymeeyah followed in the footsteps of his father, who was a scholar of Islaamic studies, by studying with the great scholars of his time.
As for the religions sciences, Ibn Taymeeyah studied the Qur’aan, Hadeeth and Sharee’ah. He learnt the Hanbalee Fiqh (law) from his own father.

Ibn Taymiyyah -Rahimullaah- had great love for Tafseer (Qur’aanic exegesis). He read over a hundred commentaries of the Qur’aan.

He completed his studies when he was a teenager and at age 19 he became a professor of Islaamic studies. Who was well versed in Qur’aanic studies, Hadeeth, Fiqh, theology, Arabic grammar and scholastic theology, etc.

The Muslim scholars, like adh-Dhahabee, Ibn Katheer, Ibn al-‘Imad al-Hanbalee and many others praised Ibn Taymiyyah and considered him one of the greatest scholars of Islaam of all time.
Ibn Taymiyyah -Rahimullaah- died in jail in Damascus on the night of Sunday-Monday 20th Dhul-Qa’dah 728 A.H. at the age of 67, and is buried in Damascus.
Bin Abdul Haady al-Maqdasee -Rahimullaah

He is Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Abdul Haady al-Jama ‘alee al-Maqdasee, he died in the 744 A.H., he was born in Palestine. From his Shaykhs were Ibn Taymeeyah, ad- Dahabee & al-Mizzee, amongst others.

He -Rahimullaah- had a great amount of books that he authored; he had an illness for nearly three months before he passed away with the Kalimah (testification) on his lips.

Ibn Katheer mentions about him: he was Mustaqeem on the way of the Salaf, and in following the Book & the Sunnah.

Ibn al-Qayyim -Rahimullaah
He is Muhammad ibn Abee Bakr Ibn Qayyim Shamsud-Deen, Abu Abdullaah, the great scholar Imaam, judge, Mujahid, the famous student of Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah -Rahimullaah.

He passed away on the Adhan of ‘esha prayer at the age of 60 years. In the year 751A.H. and is buried next to his father.

He was brought up in an environment of knowledge, studied under his father and under Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah -Rahimullaah- for 17years until the death of the shaykh.

He -Rahimullaah- was a great scholar in all the sciences of Islaam, grammar, hadeeth, fiqh, Adaab and Akhlaaq. He was well known for his worship & travelling in pursuit of knowledge.

Ibn Rajab -Rahimullaah He is Zain ud-Deen AbduRahmaan bin Ahmad, ibn Rajab -Rahimullaah. One of the great scholars of Hadeeth & Fiqh. He died in 795 A.H.
Ibn Hajr -Rahimullaah- said: ‘He perfected the knowledge of Hadeeth, and became the most knowledgeable about the inaccuracies of Hadeeth and tracing their routes from the people of his time.’

Ibn al-Emaad al-Hambalee said: ‘That his gatherings for reminding the hearts would cause shudders & he was beneficial, a blessing for the general people. The different
groups would gather under him, their hearts would fill with love and would incline towards him. He has many beneficial works and has authored many books.’

Ibn Hajr al-Asqaalanee -Rahimullaah
He is Shihaab ud-Deen, Abu Fadl, Ahmad bin ‘Alee al-Asqaalanee, he died in 852 A.H.
He was a great scholar of Hadeeth, he was given the title of Ameer ul-Mumineen of Hadeeth in his time.
Ibn Fahad said: ‘Eyes have not seen one like him and he hasn’t seen anyone like himself.’

He used to follow and stick to the Sunnah very firmly in all his affairs. He used to call to the Sunnah with his speech and his writings; he used to warn against opposing it and was severe in his disapproval of Bida’.

He wrote a very famous explanation of the Saheeh of al-Bukharee, called Fath-ul-Bari.

ash-Shawkanee -Rahimullaah
He is Muhammad bin ‘Alee ash-Shawkanee who died in the year 1250 A.H. he lived in Sana’, Yemen.

He studied under his father who was a great scholar of Yemen, and he authored many books in the different sciences of Islaam, in Tafseer he wrote ‘Fathul-Qadeer’, & in the field of hadeeth he wrote ‘Nail awtaar’.

Muhammad NaasirudDeen al-Albaanee -Rahimullaah
Shaykh Muhammad NaasirudDeen al-Albaanee he was born in Albania in the year 1332 A.H. into a poor family. His father and the family made Hijrah to Damascus.

In Damascus Shaykh al-Albaanee completed his initial education and was then taught the Qur’aan, Tajweed, sciences of Arabic language, fiqh of the Hanafee madhab and further branches of the Deen by various Shaykhs and friends of his father.
He also learnt from his father the art of clock and watch repair – and became highly skilled in that and famous for it and derived his earnings through it. He began to specialise in the field of Hadeeth and its related sciences by the age of 20- being influenced by articles in ‘al-Manaar’ magazine.
Since he could not afford many of the books he required he would borrow them from the famous library of Damascus – “al-Maktabah adth Dthaahiriyyah” or sometimes from book sellers.

He became engrossed with the science of Hadeeth to the extent that he would sometimes close up his shop and remain in the library for up to twelve hours – breaking off his work only for prayer – he would not even leave to eat, but would take two light snacks with him.

Eventually the library authorities granted him a special room to himself for his study and his own key for access to the library before normal opening time. Often he would remain at work from early morning until after ‘Ishaa. During this time he produced many useful works – many of which are still waiting to be printed.
The Shaykh faced much opposition in his efforts to promote Tawheed and the Sunnah but he bore this with patient perseverance. His works – mainly in the field of Hadeeth and its sciences number over 100.

His students are many and include many Shaykhs of the present day amongst them: , Shaykh Muqbil ibn Haadee al-Waadi’ee, Shaykh Muhammad Jameel Zaynoo.
The Shaykh -Rahimullaah- passed away on Saturday 22 Jumaadaa ath-Thaaniyah 1420 A.H./2 October 1999. He was 87 years of age. May Allaah -subhaanahu wa ta’aala- have Mercy upon his soul, Aameen.

Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn Uthaimeen -Rahimullaah
He is Abu Abdillaah Muhammad ibn Saalih ibn Uthaimeen al-Wahabee at-Tameemee.
Born in Unayzah, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 27th of Ramadan in the year 1347 hijree, he memorized the Qur’aan at a young age and he studied under the shaykh Abdur Rahmaan as-Sa’adee, he studied fiqh, grammar, hadeeth and tafseer.
He also studied under the shaykh Abdul Azeez ibn Baaz. He was also a member of the Council of Eminent Scholars of Saudi Arabia; he wrote over 40 works, he regularly delivered lectures in the masjid al-Haraam in Makka in the Rammadan and Hajj seasons.
He passed away in the year 1421A.H. and is buried in Makkah

What Shaikh Muqbil’s daughter said about him

July 4, 2010

Taken from:


Umm Abdullah Al Wade’iyyah Speaks of Her Father’s Rearing of His Daughters

Taken from the book: Nubthatun Mukhtesiratun Min Nasaaeh…

(Brief summarized excerpt of my father’s, Shiekh Muqbil bin Hadee Al Wade’iee life)

The following two questions were posed to me (Umm Abdullah):

1- (What was) the extent of his (Shiekh Muqbil bin Hadee Al Wad’ee) focus on us while  we were young?

2- (What was) his manner of teaching his family?

As for the first question:

Our father did not neglect us, even though he was extremely busy.  An example of this is his major concern for us with regards to learning the Quran.  He would recite the Quran to us in order for us to memorize it and (he) would record (his) recitation on a (audio) tape in order (for us) to perfect the recitation.  One time while my sister was memorizing, she went to him in order for him to record his recitation, but he was in the library.  She called him and he left his research, came and recorded the recitation, and then returned to his library.

(translator’s note: In another place it was mentioned that the Shiekh stood under a tree and recorded the recitation for his daughter and then returned to his research)

When we began to understand the recitation he purchased a Quranic (audio) album by Shiekh (Mahmoud Khaleel) Al Housrey.  He purchased one for each of us without a radio in order to protect us from listening to music.  Once we became more mature, he purchased a recorder with a radio, but strongly warned us against music.  By the praise of Allah we accepted that.  We have never heard music, and we strongly detest it.  Verily the Messenger(sallalahu alahi wa salem) spoke the truth when he said:

‘Every newborn is born upon the fitrah, then his/her parents make him/her a jew, a christian or a pagan’

(Sahih Al Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurairah)

He (Shiekh Muqbil) listened to what we memorized and we read to him much good.  He would order us to memorize from one specific print of The Quran.  This is because memorizing from one specific print assists (the individual) in memorizing with accuracy.  If he saw us carrying a different print he would become upset and admonish us.  May Allah have abundant mercy on him.

Amongst the students of knowledge, there were some students from Egypt and Sudan that had their wives accompanying them (in Yemen).  Some of these women would teach us and our father would pay them a salary.  This was done due to his specific focus and concern of our rearing and his general focus of the rearing of other (young) girls.  This (manner of study) continued till (we reached) the fourth grade according to school standards.  When he brought the books (curriculum/syllabus) that we were going to study with the female teachers, he would order us to erase all the pictures of living things.  We would do so with hate for pictures.

After that we were taught Islamic knowledge.  Knowledge of the Quran and Sunnah.  We would memorize with our teachers and memorize hadeeths, all praise belonging to Allah.

Our father would entertain us and joke with us with that which Allah made permissible,  contrary to what many people do today, except for those whom Allah has mercy upon.  They (aforementioned people) entertain their children with television, music and crazy toys, and other than that from wrong and evil.  (This is done) while our Prophet Muhammed -sallahu alahi wa salam- said, as it comes in Sahih Al Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Ibn Umar, the Messenger said:

‘All of you are shepherds, and all will be held responsible over his flock’

He (The Messenger) also said:

‘There is no servant that Allah gives a responsibility and he is not sincere in it’s regard, except that he will not smell the fragrance of paradise’

(Sahih Al Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Ma’kal bin Yasar)

Our father would forbid us from constantly leaving the home.  He would order us to never leave except with his permission.

This was a summary of his care for us while we were children.

As for the second question:

Firstly, he was very concerned with our learning the religion of Allah and with our increase in Islamic knowledge.  Due to this, he went through great means to provide us with everything that would assist the seeking of knowledge and free our time for it.  May Allah give him a generous reward and enter him into His highest part of paradise.

He would designate a time to teach us, and on the following day he would question us concerning the previous lesson.  If the previous lesson was difficult, he would lighten (the questioning) contrary to if it was easy.

From the private lessons that he taught in our home: ‘Qatru Nada’ (Arabic grammar), this was taught (completed) twice, ‘Sharh ibn Aqeel’ (Arabic grammar), also taught twice, and Tadreeb ar Rawee (Sciences of Hadeeth).  We were studying: ‘Musil at Tallab ila Qawed al ‘Irab’ authored by Shiekh Khaleed al Azharee, but we were prevented from completing it due to his final illness.  May Allah cover him with His mercy.

He also promised us a lesson in Balagha (Eloquence of Arabic), but his final illness also prevented the fullfilling of this.  Allah is The Helper.

He would teach us in a cheerful manner, as was his norm during his lessons.  This (characteristic) would allow the student(s) to inquire about any misunderstanding in the class.  Our sittings with him were filled with good, review of knowledge and guidance, even during meal times and over the phone.  Even during his illness while we were concerned for him, he continued to question us and bring joy to us.  All praise is for Allah.

Note: She mentions a footnote during this paragraph, it reads:

That time while he was in Saudi Arabia before traveling to Germany, he telephoned me and said:

Assalam u alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu.

(She said) I responded without mentioning: wa barakatuhu.

He then said to me: Why didn’t you respond with that which is better?!

He was referring to the statement of Allah in the Quran:

‘And if you are greeted with a greeting, then return a greeting which is better or the same’. 

He was very concerned with our statements and if we made a mistake, he would admonish us with gentleness and say: Don’t be like the people of Sa’da (city in north Yemen). One of them learns Arabic for years until he reaches the level of ‘Al Mugnee Al Labeeb’, but he still speaks on the level of a layman.

(She continued to say) I said to him one time on the phone: Now, we no longer find someone to correct us in our mistakes as you used to do.  He responded: Supplicate to Allah for me.  (She said) I pray that Allah raises him in the high parts of paradise and I pray He (Allah) makes my sister and I from those whom He (Allah) said (in the Quran) concerning them:

 ‘And those who believe and their children follow them in belief, We will join them with their children (in paradise), and We will not waste their actions’

(end of footnote)

Occasionally, he would be firm in his questioning in order to test our understanding.  He would also do this with his male students, and at times he would give us difficult questions.  I (Umm Abdullah) said to him one time: These questions are not on my level.  He responded: I know, but I intended a benefit from them, but I placed them in the form of questions.

I (Umm Abdullah) say: What he used to do has an origin in the legislation.  It has been recorded in Sahih al Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Mu’ath bin Jabal, he said: I accompanied the Messenger (sallalahu alahi wa salam) on a riding beast when he said:

‘Oh Mu’ath! I said: I answer your call and I’m continuously at your service.  He (the Prophet) repeated this 3 times and then said: Do you know what is the right of Allah upon His servants?  I said: No.  He said: The right of Allah upon His servant is that they worship Him and don’t associate partners with Him.  Then some time passed and he said: Oh Mu’ath! Do you know what is the right of the servants with Allah, if they do that (worship Him without associating partners to Him)?  Their right is that He will not punish them’.

Presenting a benefit in the form of a question strengthens comprehension of the information, and is understood better than presenting it in any other manner. This is because the student will gather and focus his attention to what is being presented to him.

He would occasionally direct questions to the females that were listening to the lessons, and then he would check which answers were correct or false.  From those questions that he asked (them): What is (the ‘Iraab) analysis for the following sentence:

The two Abdullah’s came riding (camel, horse, etc).

And (the likes of the question) what is the meaning of their (teachers of the Arabic language) statement explaining ‘Itha’ (if): it hides (the doer of the action) because it is (used as) a condition.  It is (also) mansoob (carries a fatha) due to the response of the condition.

(translator’s note: I apologize for my inability to translate the last example accurately.  It deals with Arabic grammar that is very difficult to explain in English.  Allah knows best)

We would ask him concerning doubtful matters or confusion related to our lessons or research, and if we did not fully comprehend his explanation of the matter, he would request us to continue researching, or he would accompany us to the library and assist in researching the matter.  This is something that indeed brings sadness to us, because who after my father would lend such assistance!

(A poet said):

Who can compare to your kind soft way?!  You walk gently and without haste, but arrive/come first.

Verily from Allah we come (are created), and to Him we will return.  I (Umm Abdullah) ask Allah to give us a firm statement (La illaha ill Allah) in this life and the hereafter.

He would admonish and direct us with gentleness and ease, and by the mercy of Allah, we had no choice but to obey him. Verily (his orders) were for our own good and well being, and all of them (his guidance and admonition) were precious pearls attached to and supported by the Quran and Sunnah.

From his astonishing mannerism was that he was not strict /harsh against our opinions and deductions that were possibly correct.  If we held an understanding different from his in a matter, he would not be harsh toward us.  This was his normal character with his students, as was known. He would not act cruel or stern toward them (his students) if their opinions or understanding could possibly be correct.  This (character) is something; oh respected reader, difficult to find (in a teacher).

  • He warned us of the society, because it is one that is deviant and astray.  It (is a society) that races toward that which is incorrect and does not benefit, except for those whom Allah shows mercy.
  • He warned us of pride, and he disliked for a female to be prideful and arrogant toward her husband. He would say: There is no good in her (this type of female).
  • He encouraged us with abstinence in this worldly, vanishing life.
  • He instructed us to intend through our eating and drinking, to strengthen ourselves for obedience to Allah, in order to receive the reward of Allah.

He would say: Do not busy yourselves with preparing food, what is easily available, we will eat.

  • He (constantly) encouraged us. He was not from those fathers who discourage their daughters and families. He made our level (of work) simple in order that we continued to progress and prepare ourselves with learning and obtaining beneficial knowledge.

From his statements to me was: “I hope that you become a faqeeha” (female grounded in religious legislation).

Oh by the One who we hope from no other than Him, I ask you Oh Allah to make his wish/hope a reality.

As for discouraging (your daughters or family), this only brings about laziness and hopelessness, and may lead to a regretful result.

At other times, if he noticed from us a deficiency in answering questions, he would admonish us.  This was from his ways of wisdom.  He would do this with the purpose of protecting us from conceit and pride, these two matters are diseases and they are fatal.  May Allah protect and save us from them.

Several years ago (while the Shiekh was still alive), I (verbally) wished (in his presence) to see a palm pith.  (Later) He saw some people digging up a palm tree, when they pulled out the palm pith from the heart of the tree; he brought me one to the house and said: Here is a palm pith.

(translator’s note:  I believe she intendeds here to illustrate her fathers gentleness and willingness to take some time out of his extremely busy schedule to fulfill his daughters wishes)

In conclusion to this answer, (I would like to mention) I saw a dream of my father after his death.  He and Shiekh Ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah were present in a place that I am not certain of.  I believe it may have been the lower library (in Dammaj).  Shiekh Ul Islam was standing with his beautiful white beard.  It almost fully covered his chest.  My father was also very handsome and strong.  I ask Allah to place them in His highest paradise.

(end of translated text)

This is what we had to offer of the translation of her work.  We encourage everyone to read the full version of her father’s biography.  Indeed she has placed in her book jewels and pearls that were only seen and witnessed by her.  May Allah increase her in knowledge and understanding.

May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon our last messenger Muhammed, and upon his family members and companions.

Mustafa George

Ruwais, United Arab Emirates

Q/A with Umm ‘Abdillah Al Waadi’yyah hafidhahallah

Some biographies of Scholars of the Past

May 13, 2010