Posts Tagged ‘ahkam’

Is Reciting the Quran with Tajweed Obligatory – Shaikh Fawzaan

December 2, 2013

 

The following was translated from:

http://www.ajurry.com/vb/showthread.php?t=17569

Arabic Text:

Tajweed Fawzaan


Question: Noble Shaikh – (we ask that) Allah grant you success – Is what is intended by “i’raab” of the Quran: reciting with tajweed or just the absence of grammatical errors which change the meanings? And is reciting with tajweed obligatory?

Answer (Shaikh Fawzaan): Reciting with “i’raab” of the Quran means: reciting it without linguistic, grammatical errors. This is “i’raab” of the Quran.

As for tajweed which is: Lengthening (vowels) and merging and what is similar to that from the rules of tajweed, then this is from beautifying and improving the recitation and pronunciation. It is not obligatory. It is only recommended (mustahabb), without exaggerations and without intensifications in the rulings of tajweed.

Tajweed and the rules of tajweed are from the things which beautify and improve (the recitation). Whoever learns them (the rules of tajweed) and pronounces them, then that is good. And whoever is ignorant of them, then there is no harm upon him with the condition that he recites the Quran without grammatical errors, not making marfoo’ what should be mansoob, or making mansoob what should be marfoo’, or making majroor what should be mansoob, or other than that.

So what is desired is: “I’raab” of the Quran – meaning: reciting it in Arabic without gramatical errors. As for beautifying the voice and improving the recitation and the tajweed, then these are mustahabb (recommended) and things which perfect (the recitation).

Reference: This fatwaa is quoted from Shaikh Fawzaan’s book Sharh Lum’atul I’tiqaad Guiding to the Path of Guidance, published by Daarul Imaam Ahmad

Translated by Ummu Khadijah

Reciting the Quran with Tajweed – Shaikh Albaanee

December 2, 2013

 

The follwing is a question posed to Shaikh Albaanee regarding the rulings of tajweed along with his answer. Taken from the book:

 

1000 Fatwas of Shaikh Albaanee (a collection of some of his fatwas)

Chapter (Kitaab): Tafseer of the Quran, Manners of Recitation, and Rulings of Tajweed

Section (Fasl): Rulings of Tajweed

 

Arabic Text:

Tajweed Albaanee

 

 

 

Question: There has been a lot of speech around here regarding the rulings of tajweed and using these rules, when there are some scholars who say it is obligatory, and along with that some of these rulings, the Imaams of this science have differed over them. So what is your opinion on the legislativeness of these rulings and the ranging in the solidity of its proofs from the Book and the Sunnah?

 

 

Answer (Shaikh Albaanee): Indeed people have received the recitation of the Noble Qur’an successively from those who preceeded upon this well-known path with ( the tajweed rulings). And the tajweed rulings are, at their foundation, principles for the pronunciation of Arabic, where the one who is Arab by lineage pronounces his speech in this way when speaking or reciting. And with the advancement of mankind (in time), the extension of their time with the fundamentals of the Arabic language, and the mixing of the Arabs with the non-Arabs are from the causes of the spread of grammatical mistakes. Along with the Arabs becoming un-Arabicized, due to the non-Arabs. Special care must be taken to teach these rulings in the area of reciting the Noble Quran.

 

 

As for what the questioner mentioned about the Imams differing in some of the rulings of tajweed – then this is really true. For some of them were of the opinion that the Madd Munfassal (hamzah followed by a letter of madd in two words) was unrestricted while some of them stretched it to 3 counts, and some four. Some of them lengthened the madd (elongation) of this type like (the madds) other than it (are lengthened). Some of them put (the letters) ghain and khaa with (the letters which have the ruling of) ikhfaa’ (hiding) of noon and tanween.

 

 

Some of them made ghain and khaa clear (ith-haar) – and these are the majority (who did so). Some of them made the idghaam (merging) of noon -all of it (with all the idghaam of noon letters) – to be without ghunnah – even wow and yaa. And they confined the ghunnah of idghaam to tanween until even including (the letters) laam and raa. Some of them did imaalah1 with the properties of yaa, while some of them decreased the imaalah and it is called “taqleel” to them. And there is a level of imaalah that is between fat-hah and imaalah. Some of them made ishmaam2in words where the middle root letter is yaa and which are mabnee3 and majhool4. Some of them made laam tafkheem (heavy) with some of the letters. Some of them made raa with fat-hah tarqeeq (light) when it is preceded by a yaa or a letter with kasrah. Some of them extend, meaning: lengthen, the madd of badal, etc.

 

 

And the cause for these differings is also due to following the rulings of pronunciation in Arabic. For these rules are spread out through the rulings of the recitations. And it is known that differing in the recitations is originally due to differing in the way of the pronunciation of the word with the Arabs. It is indeed from the easement of Allah – Exalted and Lofty is He – upon this ummah regarding His Book that He sent it down with seven dialects as has come in the authentic ahaadeeth which are mutawaatir5 regarding this topic. From them is his statement: ‘Indeed this Quran has been sent down upon seven dialects‘ Agreed upon. And other than it from dozens of ahaadeeth spread throughout all of the books of the Sunnah like Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, at-Tirmidhee, Abu Dawood, and other than them.

 

 

These dialects, as the Messenger (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) described them in another hadeeth when he said (translated): ‘The Quran was sent down in seven modes upon seven dialects, all of them are clear, definitive6, complete.7 So this differing that happens between the Imaams in the rules of tajweed is from this angle. This (particular) differing won’t ever harm anything.

 

 

It is upon a person to recite the Quran with the rules of tajweed, because Allah – The Most High – said (translated):

 

 

And recite the Qur’ân (aloud) in a slow, (pleasant tone and) style.‘ (Al-Muzzammil 73:4)8

 

 

So if you recite it as you read any other book, then you have not recited it with tarteel (as mentioned in the verse 73:4). So it must be recited with the rules of tajweed. The Scholars call a mistake in the rules of tajweed al-lahn al-khafee (the hidden error). So it is upon a person to make sure he learns how to recite the Quran in the correct way. As for when he knows of a differing in some ruling, then he must stick to what his Shuyookh taught him so that he doesn’t fall into chaos. And he shouldn’t leave the way that his Mashaayikh taught him believing that another way is more correct than it, because all of them (these revealed qiraa’at) are correct. And all of them are as the Messenger (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam) described: ‘Clear, definitive, complete.’

 

 

As for seeking proof from the Quran and Sunnah for these rulings, then this seeking, at its foundation, is an error. Because all of these rulings reached us by tawaatur of action (see footnote #5). So we learned recitation of the Quran from our Shaikhs and our forefathers by this way, and they (those we learned from) learned (it) the same way from their Shaikhs and forefathers, and so on until the time of the Companions who took it from the Messenger (sallallahu alayhe wa sallam). This will suffice, and all the praise belongs only to Allaah firstly and lastly.

 

 

(End of the Shaikh’s Speech)

 

Translated by Ummu Khadijah

 

Also see this beneficial article:

https://sughayyirah.wordpress.com/2013/06/25/diversity-of-the-seven-different-recitations-of-the-quran/

 

 

Footnotes

 

 

 

1Imaalah – إمالةpronunciation of “a” shaded toward “e” (Hans Wehr, see ميل)

2Ishmaam – إشمامthe pronunciation of “u” with a trace of “i” (Hans Wehr, see شم)

3 Mabnee – Indeclinable – the ending doesnt change

4 Majhool Unknown – usually refering to the passive form of verbs – for example – فُتِحَ البَابُ – The door was opened (it is unknown who opened it)

5 Mutawaatir: Narrated by a large number of people

6شافٍ– definition taken from www.almaany.com

7كافٍ– definition taken from www.almaany.com

8 Translation of the verse taken from: http://thenoblequran.com/sps/nbq/

al Haafidh Abdul Ghaanee al Maqdisee

November 6, 2012

This is a brief biography of the author and compiler of Umdatul Ahkaam Abdul Ghani al Maqdisi – not to be confused with his cousin, also a luminous scholar – Ibn Qudaamah al Maqdisi who wrote Lum’atul I’tiqaad (among other works).  This biography taken from:

http://www.aqidah.com/creed/articles/pidoc-al-haafidh-abdul-ghaniyy-al-maqdisi-d-600h.cfm

 

He is: al-Imaam al-Haafidh Abu Muhammad Abdul-Ghaniyy bin Abdul-Waahid bin Alee bin Suroor Ibn Raafi’ bin Hussain bin Ja’far al-Maqdisi al-Jammaa’eelee, then ad-Dimashqi, and he has also been given the appellation “Taqiyy ud-Deen“.

He was born in Jammaa’eel, in the land of Nablus, and he was born in 541H according to Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, and it is also said 543H, and also 544H. He was born into a family devoted to knowledge living in the precincts of the Bayt al-Maqdis. Then they traveled to Damascus. The great scholar, Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisi is the maternal cousin of Abdul-Ghaniyy, and Ibn Qudaamah described his association with Abdul-Ghaniyy, as occurs in Dhayl Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah (2/11):

My friend in childhood and in seeking knowledge, and never did we race to goodness except that he would precede me to it, with the exception of [a] small [amount of occasions]

This family was responsible for aiding and spreading the Hanbali madhhab in Shaam, and they wrote books which became the dependable books for the Hanbali madhhab in fiqh – as well as treatise in aqidahwhich clarify and explain the madhhab of the Salaf. Abdul-Ghaniyyah had three sons named Muhammad, Abdullaah and Abdur-Rahmaan, all of which became prominent noble scholars.

Abdul-Ghaniyy traveled a great deal from Asbahaan in the East to Egypt in the West, and he had a great amount of teachers, and in his travels with his cousin, Ibn Qudaamah, they came and spent time with Shaykh Abdul-Qaadir al-Jeelee (al-Jeelaanee) in his school, and they spent around fifty or so days with him. And Abdul-Ghaniyy also traveled to Alexandria and to Baghdad, and also to Hamadhaan and to Dimyaat.

Teachers and Students

The verifier of the book of Abdul-Ghaniyy “Al-Iqtisaad fil-I’tiqaad” mentions a list of forty of the shaykhs of Abdul-Ghaniyy, who are the more prominent ones, indicating that he had far many more. He also had many students, including Muhammad bin al-Waahid bin Ahmadal-Maqdisi, known as ad-Diyaa al-Maqdisi, who wrote a two volume biographical account of him and his cousin Ibn Qudaamah.

Ad-Diyaa al-Maqdisi said (as-Siyar of adh-Dhahabi 21/449):

He was a Shaykh, a Haafidh, never was he asked about a hadeeth except that he mentioned it, explained it, and mentioned its authenticity or weakness, and nor was he asked about a man except that he would say, “He is so and so, the son of so and so”, and would mention his lineage.

And ad-Diyaa also said as occurs in Dhayl Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah (2/7) and as-Siyar (21/448):

Al-Haafidh Abdul-Ghaniyy was the Ameer ul-Mu’mineen (Chief of the Believers) in Hadeeth.

His Works

The verifier of the book of Abdul-Ghaniyy “Al-Iqtisaad fil-I’tiqaad” lists 55 of the works of Abdul-Ghaniyyah, amongst them:

  1. Kitaab ut-Tawheed
  2. Al-Jaami’ as-Sagheer Li Ahkaam al-Basheer an-Nadheer
  3. Al-Ahkaam
  4. Al-Arba’een Min Kalaam Rabbil-Aalameen
  5. At-Targheeb fid-Du’aa al-Hathth Alayhi
  6. At-Tawakkul was Su’aal Allaah Azza wa Jall
  7. Al-Aathaar al-Mardiyyah Fee Fadaa’il Khayr il-Bariyyah
  8. Al-Iqtisaad fil-I’tiqaad
  9. Seerah an-Nabiyy
  10. Umdat ul-Ahkaam min Kalaam Khayr il-Kalaam
  11. Fadaa’il ul-Hajj
  12. Fadaa’il us-Sadaqah
  13. Fadaa’il Ashar Dhil-Hijjah
  14. Fadaa’il Umar bin al-Khattaab
  15. Fadaa’il Makkah
  16. Al-Kamaal Fee Ma’rifat ir-Rijaal
  17. Mihnah Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal

His Trials

Abdul-Ghaniyy was put to trial on a number of occasions in his life, particularly as a result of speaking on the issue of the Attributes and the Qur’aan.

From those ill-intentioned trouble-makers were a faction of the Ash’arites. These Ash’arites hold the creed of the Jahmiyyah and Mu’tazilah that this Qur’an present with us, in letter and word, recited, heard and memorized is “makhlooq” (created) (see here, here, here, here and here) – except that they are most adept in deception, conniving and chicanery in trying to conceal this from the people, for they believe in two Qur’ans not one, and the cousin of Abdul-Ghaniyy, Ibn Qudaamah himself had debates with these heretics, as documented here, in which the vileness of their belief and their agenda of concealment of their true doctrine became apparent.

Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali mentions in his Dhayl Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah, the jealousy of the opponents of Abdul-Ghaniyy, (the innovators who were upon the madhhab of ta’weel pioneered by the Jahmiyyah and Mu’tazilah), and when he began to speak on the subject of the Sifaat (Attributes) and the Qur’an (in Damascus), these people of ta’weel (Ash’arites) began to revile him. And they plotted and planned until they got the better of the ameer, deceiving him into believing that Abdul-Ghaniyy and his associates were trying to cause fitnah. And they tried to get him involved in a debate, trying to get him to adopt their aqidah. But he stood in their faces, debated them, and Allaah made him overwhelm and dominate them. These innovatorsthen went further in their oppression and transgression, preventing Abdul-Ghaniyy from lessons, and preventing him and his associates from even praying in the grand Mosque. Abdul-Ghaniyy, being wise, left for Egypt, stopping into Ba’labak on the way.

And those Heretics from Damascus followed him, sending a messenger to carry their lies and fabrications upon al-Haafidh Abdul-Ghaniyy to the king, Uthmaan, but Allaah saved him from their evil plot, and Abdul-Ghaniyy remained in Egypt, supported and honoured in the protection and sanctuary of its new king, al-Aadil, despite all the efforts of the opposers in trying to harm him. When al-Aadil left for Damascus and was replaced with the new king, al-Kaamil, this new ruler tried to expel al-Haafidh Abdul-Ghaniyy from Egypt on account of the great deal that had been said by the opposers to him about Abdul-Ghaniyy. Abdul-Ghaniyy was subsequently placed under house arrest for seven nights, about which he said:

I have not found serenity in Egypt with the likes of [that found in] those nights.

However, when the evil intent of those heretics and ill-intentioned deviants, and the vileness of their way became apparent to the king, and that they were jealous of him and his strong adherence to the Qur’anand Sunnah in belief, the king let him free and ordered that no-one attack him.

Refer to Ibn Rajab’s account in Dhayl Tabaqaat al-Hanaabilah (2/21-25, 26) and as-Siyar of ad-Dhahabi (21/459-461).

Abdul-Ghaniyy was also put to trial by an Ash’arite partisan in al-Asbahaan. It is mentioned by ad-Diyaa al-Maqdisi, that Sadr ad-Deen Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Abdul-Lateef bin Muhammad al-Khajnadee, the chief of the Shaafi’ites in Asbahaan, was grieved by Abdul-Ghaniyy’s 290 or so observations on Abu Nu’ayms book “Ma’rifat us-Sahaabah“, so he pursued Abdul-Ghaniyy intending to harm him, and so Abdul-Ghaniyy went into hiding. Refer to as-Siyar (21/458-459).

His creed

The creed of al-Haafidh Abdul-Ghaniyya is Sunni, Salafi, Athari, and he was upon the way of the Salaf of affirming the Names and Attributes whilst negating tashbeeh and takyeef from them – and this is what subjected him to trial at the hands of the innovators.

He died on Monday, 23rd of Rabee al-Awwal in the year 600H, and was buried in al-Quraafah in Egypt, the next day, and he left as a legacy to his son, Abu Moosaa which was: “To safeguard the knowledge of the science of hadeeth in which he tired himself in compiling and supporting, and the taqwaa of Allaah, the Most High, and safeguarding the obedience to Him”.

Refer to “al-Iqtisaad fil-I’tiqaad“, pp. 9-56, tahqeeq Ahmad bin Atiyyah al-Ghaamidee, 1st edition, 1993, Maktabah al-Uloom wal-Hikam, Madinah, KSA.

Umdatul Ahkaam

November 5, 2012

 

 

Umdatul Ahkaam

 

عمدة الأحكام

 

Arabic Text:

 

The Arabic text as a program from Shaikh Uthaymeen’s website:

Www.binothaimeen.com/soft/moton/OmdatAlahkam.exe

 

The Arabic text as a pdf file:

umdatul ahkaam Arabic text

 

 

Arabic Audio f the Text:

 

www.archive.org/download/shaydzmi7/omdat-al-ahkam-01.mp3

 

www.archive.org/download/shaydzmi7/omdat-al-ahkam-02.mp3

 

www.archive.org/download/shaydzmi7/omdat-al-ahkam-03.mp3

 

www.archive.org/download/shaydzmi7/omdat-al-ahkam-04.mp3

 

www.archive.org/download/shaydzmi7/omdat-al-ahkam-05.mp3

 

www.archive.org/download/shaydzmi7/omdat-al-ahkam-06.mp3

 

www.archive.org/download/shaydzmi7/omdat-al-ahkam-07.mp3

 

www.archive.org/download/shaydzmi7/omdat-al-ahkam-08.mp3

 

 

English Explanations:

 

Explanation by Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ramzaan al Haajiree:

(Arabic and translated to English)

http://ahlussunnahaudio.com/en/?p=1387

 

 

 

Shaikh Uthaymeen’s explanation of the Book of Taharah (English book):

https://www.troid.ca/store/product.php?productid=18828

 

 

Arabic Audio Explanations:

Shaikh Abdul Muhsin al Abbaad:

http://subulsalam.com/catplay.php?catsmktba=1551

 

 

Shaikh Abdullah Bukhari:

http://ar.miraath.net/book/895

 

 

Shaikh Saalih Luhaydaan:

http://subulsalam.com/catplay.php?catsmktba=1120

 

 

Shaikh Muhammad Saeed Raslaan:

http://www.rslan.com/vad/items.php?chain_id=170

 

 

Arabic Audio Explanations of Individual Chapters

 

The Book of Salaah:

 

Shaikh Muhammad Amaan al Jaamee:

http://subulsalam.com/catplay.php?catsmktba=1042

 

 

Shaikh Ahmad anNajmee:

http://subulsalam.com/catplay.php?catsmktba=528

 

 

Shaikh Uthaymeen:

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/publish/cat_index_145.shtml

 

 

Book of Taharah

 

Shaikh Ubaid al Jaabiree:

http://subulsalam.com/catplay.php?catsmktba=577

 

 

Shaikh Fawzaan:

http://subulsalam.com/catplay.php?catsmktba=80

 

 

Shaikh Uthaymeen:

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/publish/cat_index_147.shtml

 

 

Book of Hajj

 

Shaikh Uthaymeen:

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/publish/cat_index_146.shtml

 

 

Shaikh AbdurRazzaaq al Badr:

http://subulsalam.com/catplay.php?catsmktba=329