Posts Tagged ‘irregular’

Pattern X, irregular, present tense

May 13, 2010

Double letter: pattern X muda’af

Weak middle letter: pattern X weak of ayn

Weak end letter : pattern X weak of lam

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Using Lam with irregular verbs

May 6, 2010

To see how lam لم changes irregular verbs, look at how irregular verbs change when they are put in the negative command form

https://sughayyirah.wordpress.com/2010/04/29/negative-commands-for-2nd-person-irregular-verbs/

because lam will do the same thing. This is because in both of these cases (when used in a negative command and when used with lam), the verb becomes majzoom. A very important principle to remember is that two letters with sukoon on them can not be beside each other. If this is going to happen, then one of them is dropped (in the case of the double letter, the last letter takes a fat-hah and NOT a sukoon)

Examples:

We will look at mujarrad muda’af (double letter) verbs first. Example (2nd person present tense of صَبَّ – to pour)

تَصُبُّ you (m.sg) are pouring

تَصُبُّيْنَ you (f.pl) are pouring

تَصُبُّوْنَ you (m.pl) are pouring

تَصْبُبْنَ you (f.pl) are pouring

Note: the 2nd person feminine plural present tense does not change, ever. It is mabny مبني

Now, looking at تَصُبُّ – remember that a letter with shaddah over it is really a double letter, so بّ is really بْ + بُ . So if we put a sukoon on the ending of تصبّ as is usually done in the majzoom case (for singular), two sakin letters will meet:

بْ + بْ and since we are not allowed to do this, we will instead change the dammah to fat-hah to avoid the meeting of two sakin letters:

لا تَصُبَّ Don’t pour! (m.sg)  It is also allowed to separate the doubled letters, e.g.: لا تَصْبُبْ . An example in the Quran is the speech of the chaste mother of the Prophet Jesus – Maryam (Mary):

 قَالَتْ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لِي غُلَامٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِي بَشَرٌ

“She said, ‘How can I have a son when no man has touched me?'”  (3:47) 

It is from the great power and ability of Allah (God) The Lord of the Universe that He can create whatever He wills however He wills.  He created Adam without a mother or a father, He  created Hawwaa (Eve) from Adam’s rib, and in this instance He created the noble Prophet (who is not divine in any way) Jesus without a father.  The verse (3:47) continues:

“He said: “So (it will be) for Allâh creates what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it only: “Be!” and it is.”  (translation of verse from www.thenoblequran.com )

So in this verse we see a muda’af verb مَسَّ  to touch, and it has لم in front of it, so it is made majzoom.  And here the double letters are separated لم يَمْسَسْ 

The other forms of the mujarrad muda’af are easier, we just drop the noon (except for the 2nd person f.pl. – it stays the same):

لا تصبِّيْ Don’t pour! (f.sg)

لا تصبُّوا Don’t pour! (m.pl)

لا تصْبُبْنَ Don’t pour! (f.pl)

[with لم :

لَمْ نَصُبَّ We didn’t pour or لَمْ  نَصْبُبْ

لَمْ يَصُبُّوا They didn’t (m) didn’t pour

لَمْ تَصُبِّيْ You (f.sg) didn’t pour

لَمْ تَصْبُبْنَ You (f.pl) didn’t pour ]

For mazeed (increased) verbs that are muda’af, the same principles apply. Example for أَعِدَّ (wazn IV) – to prepare something

لا تُعِدَّ Don’t prepare! (m.sg)  or لا تُعْدِدْ

لا تُعِدِّيْ Don’t prepare! (f.sg)

لا تُعِدُّوا Don’t prepare! (m.pl)

لا تُعْدِدْنَ Don’t prepare! (f.sg)

[with lam:

لَمْ اُعِدَّ I didn’t prepare or لم أُعْدِدْ

لم تُعِدِّيْ You (f.sg) didn’t prepare

لم يُعِدُّوا They (m) didnt prepare

لم يُعْدِدْنَ They (f) didn’t prepare ]

This is how it is for most of the wazns (patterns). However, patterns II and V of a double letter are conjugated like a regular verb. Example:

حَقَّقَ (whose root is حَقَّ )

لا تُحَقِّقْ Don’t bring about (actualize)….! (m.sg)

لا تَشَدَّدْ Don’t be harsh! (m.sg) (from the root شَدَّ )

[ لم يُحَقِّقْ He didn’t investigate

لم تَحَقَّقْنَ You (f.pl) didn’t verify/confirm ]

As for verbs with a weak middle letter, then we form the negative command thusly:

لا تَقُلْ Don’t say! (m.sg) The wow is dropped to avoid the meeting of two sakin letters (لا تَقُوْلْ )

لا تَقُوْلِيْ Don’t say! (f.sg) The wow is not dropped because there is no meeting of two sakin letters

لا تَقُوْلُوا Don’t say! (m.pl) The wow is not dropped because there is no meeting of two sakin letters

لا تَقُلْنَ Don’t say! (f.pl) The wow is dropped to avoid the meeting of two saakin letters (لا تَقُوْلْنَ )

[لَمْ أَقُلْ I didn’t say

لم تَقُوْلِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t say

لم يَقُلْنَ They (f) didn’t say

لم يَقُوْلُوا They (m) didn’t say]

Apply this principle to each of the three types of weak middle letter verbs for the mujarrad (bare):

لا تَنَمْ Don’t sleep! (m.sg) The weak middle letter- in this case it is alif- is dropped (لا تَنَاْمْ )

لا تَبِعْ Don’t sell! (m.sg) The weak middle letter- yaa- is dropped (لا تَبِيْعْ )

[لَمْ أنَمْ I didn’t sleep, لَمْ يَبِيْعُوا They (m) didn’t sell – yaa is not dropped here because there is no meeting of 2 sakin letters ]

The same principle applies for mazeed (increased) verbs with a weak middle letter (except for wazns II and V which form the negative command like a regular verb). Example is the wazn IV verb أشَارَ ، يُشِيْرُ to point:

لا تُشِرْ Don’t point! (m.sg) Yaa is dropped (لا تُشِيْرْ )

لا تُشِيْرِيْ Don’t point! (f.sg) Noon is dropped

لا تُشِيْرُوا Don’t point! (m.pl) Noon is dropped

لا تُشِرْنَ Don’t point (f.pl) No change  ( the present tense  تُشِرْنَ was تُشِيْرْنَ but a yaa was dropped because of the meeting of the two sakin letters)

[لَمْ نُشِرْ We didn’t point

لَمْ تُشِيْرِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t point

لم تُشِيْرُوا You (m.pl) didn’t point

لم يُشِرْنَ They (f) didn’t point ]

As for verbs with a weak last letter, then the negative command for them is formed thusly:

لا تَبْكِ Don’t cry (m.sg) Yaa was dropped (from تَبْكِيْ )

لا تَبْكِيْ Don’t cry (f.sg) Noon was dropped (from تَبْكِيْنَ ) as is the normal case for 2nd person feminine singular

لا تَبْكُوا Don’t cry (m.pl) Noon was dropped ( from تَبْكُوْنَ ) as is the normal case for 2nd person masculine plural

لا تَبْكِيْنَ Don’t cry (f.pl) No change, as is normal for the 2nd person f. pl.

[ لم أَبْكِ I didn’t cry

لم تَبْكِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t cry

لم يَبْكُوا They (m) didn’t cry

لم يَبْكِيْنَ They (f) didn’t cry ]


Apply the same principle to all three types of weak end letter verbs which are mujarrad (bare):

لا تَنْسَ Don’t forget! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from لا تَنْسَى )

لا تَنْسَيْ Don’t forget! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَنْسَوا Don’t forget! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَنْسَيْنَ Don’t forget! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

[لَمْ أَنْسَ I didn’t forget ( from أنْسَى )

لم تَنْسَيْ You (f.sg) didn’t forget

لم يَنْسَوا They (m) didn’t forget

لم يَنْسَيْنَ They (f) didn’t forget ]

لا تَشْكُ Don’t complain! (m.sg) Dropped the wow (from تَشْكُوْ )

لا تَشْكِيْ Don’t complain! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُوا Don’t complain! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُوْنَ Don’t complain! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

[لَمْ أَشْكُ I didn’t complain (from أشكُوْ )

لم تَشْكِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t complain

لم يَشْكُوا They (m) didn’t complain

لَم يَشْكُوْنَ They (f) didn’t complain ]

Review weak middle and end letter conjugations for mujarrad verbs in chapters 27 and 28 of Madinah Book 2

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_29.htm  (ch. 28)

Apply the same principles to mazeed (increased ) verbs (including wazns II and V ). For سَمَّى، يُسَمِّيْ (II) to name/call

لا تُسَمِّ Don’t name! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تُسَمِّيْ )

لا تُسَمِّيْ Don’t name! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تُسَمُّوا Don’t name! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تُسَمِّيْنَ Don’t name! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

[ لَمْ أُسَمِّ I didn’t name

لَم تُسَمِّيْ You (f.sg) didn’t name

لم يُسَمُّوا They (m) didn’t name

لم يُسَمِّيْنَ They (f) didn’t name ]

تَغَدَّى، يَتَغَدَّى (V) to have lunch

لا تَتَغَدَّ Don’t have lunch! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تَتَغَدَّى )

لا تَتَغَدَّيْ Don’t have lunch! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَتَغَدَّوا Don’t have lunch! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَتَغَدَّيْنَ Don’t have lunch! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

All the daals د in the above forms have fat-hah.

[لَم أَتَغَدَّ I didn’t have lunch

لم تَتَغَدَّيْ You (f.sg) didn’t have lunch

لم يَتَغَدَّوا They (m) didn’t have lunch

لم يَتَغَدَّيْنَ They (f) didn’t have lunch

 All of the daals in the above forms should have fat-hah ]

اِشْتَرَى،يَشْتَرِيْ (VIII) to buy

لا تَشْتَرِ Don’t buy! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تَشْتَرِيْ ) raa has kasrah

لا تَشْتَرِيْ Don’t buy! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْتَرُوا Don’t buy! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْتَرِيْنَ Don’t buy! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

[ لَمْ أَشْتَرِ I didn’t buy

لم تَشْتَرِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t buy

لم يَشْتَرُوا They (m) didn’t buy

لم يَشْتَرِيْنَ They (f) didn’t buy ]

Negative commands for irregular verbs, 2nd person

April 29, 2010

To form the negative command for 2nd person with irregular mujarrad (bare) verbs, you will do two things:

1.Put لا in front of the 2nd person present tense

2.Make the ending majzoom

One of the main principles with irregular verbs is the principle that two sakin letters (letters with sukoon) can NOT be beside each other. Whenever this will be the case, one of the sakin letters is dropped.

We will look at mujarrad muda’af (double letter) verbs first. Example (2nd person present tense of صَبَّ – to pour)

تَصُبُّ you (m.sg) are pouring

تَصُبُّيْنَ you (f.pl) are pouring

تَصُبُّوْنَ you (m.pl) are pouring

تَصْبُبْنَ you (f.pl) are pouring

Note: the 2nd person feminine plural present tense does not change, ever.

Now, looking at تَصُبُّ – remember that a letter with shaddah over it is really a double letter, so بّ is really بْ + بُ . So if we put a sukoon on the ending of تصبّ as is usually done in the majzoom case (for singular), two sakin letters will meet:

بْ + بْ and since we are not allowed to do this, we will instead change the dammah to fat-hah to avoid the meeting of two sakin letters:

لا تَصُبَّ Don’t pour! (m.sg)

The other forms are easier, we just drop the noon:

لا تصبِّيْ Don’t pour! (f.sg)

لا تصبُّوا Don’t pour! (m.pl)

لا تصْبُبْنَ Don’t pour! (f.pl)

And the feminine plural does not change, as we mentioned, but notice how the double letter comes apart just like in some of the past tense forms (like صَبَبْتُ – I poured)

For mazeed (increased) verbs that are muda’af, the same principles apply. Example for أَعِدَّ (wazn IV) – to prepare something

لا تُعِدَّ Don’t prepare! (m.sg)

لا تُعِدِّيْ Don’t prepare! (f.sg)

لا تُعِدُّوا Don’t prepare! (m.pl)

لا تُعْدِدْنَ Don’t prepare! (f.sg)

This is how it is for most of the wazns (patterns). However, patterns II and V of a double letter are conjugated like a regular verb. Example:

حَقَّقَ (whose root is حَقَّ )

لا تُحَقِّقْ Don’t bring about (actualize)….! (m.sg)

لا تَشَدَّدْ Don’t be harsh! (m.sg) (from the root شَدَّ )

As for verbs with a weak middle letter, then we form the negative command thusly:

لا تَقُلْ Don’t say! (m.sg) The wow is dropped to avoid the meeting of two sakin letters (لا تَقُوْلْ )

لا تَقُوْلِيْ Don’t say! (f.sg) The wow is not dropped because there is no meeting of two sakin letters

لا تَقُوْلُوا Don’t say! (m.pl) The wow is not dropped because thereis no meeting of two sakin letters

لا تَقُلْنَ Don’t say! (f.pl) The wow is dropped to avoid the meeting of two saakin letters (لا تَقُوْلْنَ )

Apply this principle to each of the three types of weak middle letter verbs for the mujarrad (bare):

لا تَنَمْ Don’t sleep! (m.sg) The weak middle letter- in this case it is alif- is dropped (لا تَنَاْمْ )

لا تَبِعْ Don’t sell! (m.sg) The weak middle letter- yaa- is dropped (لا تَبِيْعْ )

The same principle applies for mazeed (increased) verbs with a weak middle letter (except for wazns II and V which form the negative command like a regular verb). Example is the wazn IV verb أشَارَ ، يُشِيْرُ to point:

لا تُشِرْ Don’t point! (m.sg) Yaa is dropped (لا تُشِيْرْ )

لا تُشِيْرِيْ Don’t point! (f.sg) Noon is dropped

لا تُشِيْرُوا Don’t point! (m.pl) Noon is dropped

لا تُشِرْنَ Don’t point (f.pl) No change  ( the present tense  تُشِرْنَ was تُشِيْرْنَ but a yaa was dropped because of the meeting of the two sakin letters)

As for verbs with a weak last letter, then the negative command for them is formed thusly:

لا تَبْكِ Don’t cry (m.sg) Yaa was dropped (from تَبْكِيْ )

لا تَبْكِيْ Don’t cry (f.sg) Noon was dropped (from تَبْكِيْنَ ) as is the normal case for 2nd person feminine singular

لا تَبْكُوا Don’t cry (m.pl) Noon was dropped ( from تَبْكُوْنَ ) as is the normal case for 2nd person masculine plural

لا تَبْكِيْنَ Don’t cry (f.pl) No change, as is normal for the 2nd person f. pl.


Apply the same principle to all three types of weak end letter verbs which are mujarrad (bare):

لا تَنْسَ Don’t forget! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from لا تَنْسَى )

لا تَنْسَيْ Don’t forget! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَنْسَوا Don’t forget! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَنْسَيْنَ Don’t forget! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُ Don’t complain! (m.sg) Dropped the wow (from تَشْكُوْ )

لا تَشْكِيْ Don’t complain! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُوا Don’t complain! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُوْنَ Don’t complain! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

Review weak middle and end letter conjugations for mujarrad verbs in chapters 27 and 28 of Madinah Book 2

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_29.htm

 

Apply the same principles to mazeed (increased ) verbs (including wazns II and V ). For سَمَّى، يُسَمِّيْ (II) to name/call

لا تُسَمِّ Don’t name! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تُسَمِّيْ )

لا تُسَمِّيْ Don’t name! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تُسَمُّوا Don’t name! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تُسَمِّيْنَ Don’t name! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

تَغَدَّى، يَتَغَدَّى (V) to have lunch

لا تَتَغَدَّ Don’t have lunch! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تَتَغَدَّى )

لا تَتَغَدَّيْ Don’t have lunch! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَتَغَدَّوا Don’t have lunch! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَتَغَدَّيْنَ Don’t have lunch! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

All the daals د in the above forms have fat-hah.

 

اِشْتَرَى،يَشْتَرِيْ (VIII) to buy

لا تَشْتَرِ Don’t buy! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تَشْتَرِيْ ) raa has kasrah

لا تَشْتَرِيْ Don’t buy! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْتَرُوا Don’t buy! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْتَرِيْنَ Don’t buy! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case