Posts Tagged ‘sarf’

Introduction to Compound Words

June 28, 2012


Lisaanul Arab under the letter haa ح

وقال الليث: قلت للخليل: ما مثل هذا من الكلام أَن يجمع بين كلمتين فتصير منهما كلمة؟ قال: قول العرب عبد شمس وعبد قيس، عبد كلمة وشمس كلمة؛ فيقولون: تَعَبْشَمَ الرجل وتَعَبْقَسَ، ورجل عَبْشَمِيٌّ وعَبْقَسِيٌّ. وروي عن الفراء أَنه قال: لم نسمع بأَسماءِ بنيت من أَفعال إِلاَّ هذه الأَحرف: البسملة والسبحلة والهيللة والحوقلة؛ أَراد أَنه يقال: بسمل إِذا قال: بسم الله، وحوقل إِذا قال: لا حول ولا قوَّة إِلا بالله، وحمدل إِذا قال: الحمد لله،

وجَعْفَلَ جَعْفَلَةً من جُعِلْتُ فداءك، والحَيْعَلَةُ من حيّ على الصلاة. قال أَبو العباس: هذه الثلاثة أَحرف أَعني حَمْدَلَ وجَعْفَلَ وحَيْعَلَ عن غير الفراء؛ وقال ابن الأَنباري: فلان يُبَرْقِل علينا، ودَعْنا من التَّبَرْقُلِ، وهو أَن يقول ولا يفعل، ويَعِدَ ولا يُنْجز، أُخذ من البَرْقِ والقَوْل

Al-Laith said: I said to Al-Khaleel : ‘What is an example of this when two words are combined to make one word?’  He said: ‘The saying of the Arabs –

Abdu Shams عبد شمس

1and Abd Qays  عبد قيس

Abd (servant) is one word and Shams (sun) is one word

So they say

   تَعَبْشَمَ الرجل The man worshiped the sun

And تَعَبْقَسَ

And the noun form of the verb is

عَبْشَمِيٌّ sun worshiper

And عَبْقَسِيٌّ

It is narrated from Al-Furaa that he said:  “We haven’t heard of (compound) words built from verbs except for the following

  البسملة والسبحلة2 والهيللة3 والحوقلة4″

What he meant was


which means to say Bismillah6

And حَوْقَلَ

7‘which is to say ‘laa hawla wa la quwwata illaa billah

And حَمْدَلَ

which is to say Alhamdulillah8

And the verb Ja’fala9 whose masdar is Ja’falah10 is from

جُعِلْتُ فِدَاءكَ  I was made ransom for you11

And the masdar Hay’alah12  from

Which means to say: Come to the Prayer  حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلَاة

Abul-Abbaas said: These three wordings – I mean

حَمْدَلَ وجَعْفَلَ وحَيْعَلَ

are from other than Al-Furaa

Lastly Lisaanul Arab says13 that Ibn al-Anbaaree mentioned the word

بَرْقَلَ يُبَرْقِلُ

which is to promise something and not fulfill that promise, or that a person says something but doesn’t do it

Al Qamoos al Muheet14 mentions that barqala means to lie.  Lisaan ul Arab15 also mentions this definition in one place.  In another place, Lisaanul Arab  mentions the following

منه قولهم: لا تُبَرْقِل علينا؛ والبَرْقَلة: كلام لا يَتْبَعه فعل،

مأْخوذ من البَرْق الذي لا مطر معه

From it is their saying: Don’t lie to us.  And Barqalah16 means: speech not followed by  actions. Taken from the lightning which has no rain with it17

1Qays is a family name

2From the verb سَبْحَلَ which is to say “God is perfect and free from all deficiencies and defects” – سُبْحَانُ اللهِ

3From the verb هَيْلَلَ which is to say “No one deserves to be worshiped except for God”

لا إلهَ إلّا الله

4These are all masdars

5Whose masdar is بَسْمَلَة

6With the Name of God – بِسْمِ اللهِ

7There is neither might nor power except with God –  لا حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إلّا بِاللهِ  

8All the praise and thanks are only for God – الحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ



11In الصحاح في اللغة under  فدى it mentions:

ويقال: فَداهُ وفاداهُ إذا أعطى فداءه فأنقذه وفداه بنفسه.

And it is said: ‘he sacrificed for him’ when he gave himself as someone else’s ransom – so that he saved   him and sacrificed himself for him

12حَيْعَلَة which is the masdar for the verb حَىْعَلَ

13Summarily, not verbatim

16بَرْقَلَة The masdar for برقل

17برقل is formed from بَرْق – lightning, and قَوْل – speech


How to form the object (مَفْعُوْلٌ ) in 3 letter root, bare verbs

May 5, 2010

The object for thulaathee (3 letter root) mujarrad (bare) verbs is generally formed on the pattern of مَفْعُوْلٌ The maf’ool is the person or thing the action is done to, Ex:

حَفِظَ to memorize, مَحْفُوْظٌ something which was memorized

فَهِمَ to understand, مَفْهُوْمٌ understood

هَلْ هذا مفهوم؟

Is this understood?

More examples:

كَسَرَ  to break,  مَكْسُوْرٌ  broken

غَسَلَ  to wash, مَغْسُوْلٌ  washed

كَتَبَ  to write, مَكْتُوْبٌ  written

سَرِقَ  to steal, مَسْرُوْقٌ  stolen

سَمِعَ  to hear, مَسْمُوْعٌ heard

عَلِمَ  to know, مَعْلُوْمٌ   known

Formed with irregular verbs thusly:

سَرَّ to please, make happy مَسْرُوْر pleased/happy

أنا مسرور

I am happy.

قَال، يقول to say, مَقُوْل statement (something which was said)

بَاع، يبِيْع to sell, مَبِيْعٌ sold

دَعَا، يَدْعُوْ to invite, مَدْعُوٌّ invited

قَلَى، يَقْلِيْ to fry, مَقْلِيٌ fried

Refer to Madinah Book 3, chapter 5 for more examples


The maf’ool for regular verbs may also be formed on the pattern فَعِيْلٌ


جَرِيْحٌ injured

مَرِيْضٌ sick

رَجِيْمٌ cursed

This was taken from the Tafseer Book of Semester/Level 4 in the Madinah series:


والرجيم: فعيل بمعنى مفعـول أي أنه مَرْجُوم مَطرود عن الخير

N.B. The mubaalaghah pattern فَعِيْلٌ can also be used for the فَاعِلٌ or Doer of the action. Ex:

نَصِيْرٌ one who helps a lot

mamnoo’ min as-sarf

April 29, 2010

File: diptotes  )

See also Madinah Book 1, lesson 22: