Posts Tagged ‘verb’

Touching on the Passive Voice

December 17, 2014

Sometimes verbs have an active voice (مَعْلُوْم )

and sometimes a passive voice ( مَجْهُوْل ).

When verbs have an active voice,

the Doer of the action is mentioned.

In the passive voice, the one receiving

the action is mentioned, but the one

who did the action is not mentioned.

For example:

خَلَقَ he created (active voice) – we know

the doer of the action here is “he”

خُلِقَ he was created (passive voice) – we

know now that “he” is the one receiving the

action, but the one who did the action

is not mentioned.

Likewise: خَلَقْتُ (ma’loom) – I created

As opposed to:

خُلِقْتُ (majhool) – I WAS created

Also: وَلَدْتُ I gave birth

As opposed to:

وُلِدْتُ I was born

And in the Quran:

أَفَلَا يَنظُرُونَ إِلَى الْإِبِلِ

كَيْفَ خُلِقَتْ

-88:17:00

And an example of an irregular verb:

بَنَى, يَبْنِي

We have the active form in the hadeeth:

مَنْ بَنَى لله مَسْجِدًا

بَنَى اللهُ لَهُ بَيْتًا في الجنة

Whoever builds a masjid for the sake of Allaah,

Allaah will build for him a house in Paradise

And we have the passive form in the hadeeth:

بُنِيَ الإسْلَامُ عَلى خَمْسٍ

Islaam is built upon five…

So that is how the past tense majhool (passive)

is formed for thulaathee mujarrad verbs.

As for the present tense majhool

for thulaathee mujarrad,

then observe the following:

يَسْأَلُ (ma’loom) he asks

As opposed to:

يُسْأَلُ (majhool) he IS asked

And in the verse:

لَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ

{21:23}

He wont be asked about what He does,

but they will be asked

The following is part of 2 charts taken from

Madinah Book 3, chapter 3

Going over the active (ma’loom) voice

And passive (majhool) voice

In both the past tense (maadi)

And the present (mudaari’) tense

جدول الفعل الماضي

الفعل المبني للمجهول

الفعل المبني للمعلوم

سُئِلَ

سَأَلَه المدرسُ

سُئِلوا

سَأَلَهم المدرسُ

سُئِلَتْ

سأَلَها الأبُ

سُئِلْنَ

سأَلهُنَّ الأبُ

سُئِلْتَ

سَأَلَكَ المدرسُ

سُئِلْتُمْ

سَأَلَكُم المدرسُ

سُئِلْتِ

سَأَلَكِ الأبُ

سُئِلْتُنَّ

سَأَلَكُنَّ الأبُ

سُئِلْتُ

سَأَلَنِي المدرسُ

سُئِلْنَا

سَأَلنَا المدرسُ

جدول الفعل المضارع

الفعل المبني للمجهول

الفعل المبني للمعلوم

يُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلهُ المدرسُ

يُسْأَلُونَ

يَسْأَلُهم المدرسُ

تُسْأَل

يَسْأَلُها الأبُ

يُسْأَلْنَ

يَسْأَلُهُنَّ الأبُ

تُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلُكَ المدرسُ

تُسْأَلُونَ

يَسْأَلُكُمُ المدرسُ

تُسْأَلِيْنَ

يَسْأَلُكِ الأبُ

تُسْأَلْنَ

يَسْأَلُكُنَّ الأبُ

أُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلُنِي المدرسُ

نُسْأَلُ

يَسْأَلُنا المدرسُ

Here are some examples of the passive

voice for some of the mazeed verbs:

Form II

عَلَّمَ he taught (ma’loom)

As opposed to:

عُلِّمَ he was taught (majhool)

عَلَّمْتُ I taught

عُلِّمْتُ I was taught

In the present tense:

أُعَلِّمُ I teach

أُعَلَّمُ I am being taught

Form III

قَابَلَ he met

As opposed to:

قُوْبِلَ he was made to meet

And for the irregular verb نَادَى (the meaning

is دَعَا – to call or to call upon).

Here it is in active (ma’loom) form:

وَزَكَرِيَّا إِذْ نَادَى رَبَّهُ

{21:89}

And Zakariyyah, when he called upon his Lord

And here it is in passive (majhool) form:

فَلَمَّا جَاءهَا نُودِيَ

{27:8}

So when he came, he was called

Form IV

أَنْزَلَ he sent down

As opposed to:

أُنْزِلَ it was sent down

And in the Quran:

كِتَابٌ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ

{7:2}

A book sent down to you

As for the irregular verb أَلْقَى (to throw),

فَأَلْقَى مُوسَى عَصَاهُ

{26:45}

So Musa threw his stick

is in the passive أُلْقِيَ

فَأُلْقِيَ السَّحَرَةُ سَاجِدِينَ

{26:46}

So the sorcerers were thrown down, prostrating

Another irregular IV verb which is used often:

ءَاتَى (or آتَى ) “to give”

وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا

{19:12}

And We gave him wisdom while he was a young child

In the passive, changes to أُوْتِيَ

وَمَن يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيراً

{2:269}

And whoever is given hikmah has indeed been given an abundance of good

وَأُوتِيَتْ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ

{27:23}

and she has been given…

Exercises

Pick the passive verbs (past or present tense)

out of the following verses:

1.{88:18-20}

2.{27:8}

فَلَمَّا جَاءهَا نُودِيَ أَن بُورِكَ

مَن فِي النَّارِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا

3.{25:3}

وَاتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ آلِهَةً

لَّا يَخْلُقُونَ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ

4.{40:12}

ذَلِكُم بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِيَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ كَفَرْتُمْ

وَإِن يُشْرَكْ بِهِ تُؤْمِنُوا

فَالْحُكْمُ لِلَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْكَبِيرِ

5.{27:46}

قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لِمَ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ قَبْلَ

الْحَسَنَةِ لَوْلَا تَسْتَغْفِرُونَ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

6.{27:47}

قَالُوا اطَّيَّرْنَا بِكَ وَبِمَن مَّعَكَ

قَالَ طَائِرُكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ

بَلْ أَنتُمْ قَوْمٌ تُفْتَنُونَ

7.{27:65}

قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ

وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ

وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُونَ

8.{28:41}

وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ

وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يُنصَرُونَ

9.{28:70}

وَهُوَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ

لَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْأُولَى وَالْآخِرَةِ

وَلَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

10.{19:33}

وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَيَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدتُّ

وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيًّا

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The Definition of Taqwaa

June 17, 2013

 

 

 

Shaikh Uthaymeen said about the definition of taqwaa:

 

http://www.ibnothaimeen.com/all/books/article_18016.shtml

(From his Explanation of Riyadhus Saaliheen, The Chapter of Taqwaa)

 

 

وهو أن يتخذ الإنسان ما يَقِيه من عذاب الله. والذي يقيك من عذاب الله هو فعل أوامر الله ،واجتناب نواهيه

 

 

And it (taqwaa) is that a person takes what will protect him from the punishment of Allah. And what protects you from the punishment of Allah is doing what He has commanded and avoiding His prohibitions”

 

 

 

 

Shaikh Fawzaan said in his lecture about attaining a happy life:

 

يتقون يعني  يتخذون وقاية من غضب الله  وعذابه

وما هي الوقاية؟

هل هي الدروع الحصون والجنود؟ لا

أو الثياب؟ لا

الوقاية العمل الصالح

الوقاية العمل الصالح

وتقوى الله أن تعمل  بطاعة الله على نور من الله ترجو ثواب الله

وأن تترك معصية الله على نور من الله تخاف من عقاب الله

ها هى التقوى

سُمِّيَ تقوى لأنها تقيك من غضب الله وتقيك من العذاب

هذه التقوى

 

 

 

They have taqwaa – meaning – they take something to protect them from Allah’s Anger and Punishment

What is the protection?

Is it armor, fortresses, and armies? No.

Is it clothing? No.

The protection is righteous deeds

The protection is righteous deeds

Having taqwaa of Allah is that you act in Allah’s obedience upon a light from Him, seeking the Reward of Allah

And that you leave off disobedience to Allah, upon a light from Him, fearing Allah’s punishment

This is taqwaa

It is called taqwaa because it protects you from the Anger of Allah and it protects you from the punishment. 

This is taqwaa

 

 

 

The root of تَقْوَى is from the verbوَقَى, يَقِيْ which means “to protect”. 

It’s masdar (verbal noun) is وِقَايَةٌ (protection) and its amr ( command ) form is:

قِ (m.sg), قِيْ (f.sg), قُوا (m.pl, see verse 66:6), and قِيْنَ (f.pl)

 

تَقِيٌّ is “having taqwaa”

 

For example:

 

وَكَانَ تَقِيًّا

 

And he (Yahyaa) was one having taqwaa” (19:13)

 

(taqee is mansoob in the verse due to kaana)

 

The verb meaning “to have taqwaa” is اِتَّقَى   يَتَّقِي   اِتَّقِ  

(53:32, 92:5, 33:1, )

 

The comparative/superlative form (اسْمُ التَفْضِيْل ) is أَتْقَىwhich is having more or having the most taqwaa (depending on the context) (49:13).  Other words that follow this pattern:

 

خَفِيٌّ hidden (19:3)  أَخْفَى more/most hidden1

Like in the saying of the Prophet – sallallahu alayhe was sallam – that shirk is:

أَخْفَى من دبيب النمل

more hidden than the crawling of the ant…”2

شَقِيٌّ wretched (11:105)  أَشْقَى more/most wretched (91:12, 92:15)

 

 

 

Footnotes

 

 

 

1أَخْفَى is also a verb meaning “to hide (something)”

2 Recorded by many of the hadeeth scholars, authenticated by Shaikh Albanee in Saheeh al Adab al Mufrad, narrated by Ma’qal bin Yasaar

How to make an intransitive verb transitive

June 21, 2012

 

Download the file from here: Changing intransitive verbs to transitive

 

 

Pattern XIII if’awwala, yaf’awwilu

April 4, 2012

http://sughayyirahbinaalafaal.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/binaa-al-afaal-17-ifawwala-yafawwilu/

 

 

Pattern XII if’aw’ala, yaf’aw’ilu

March 20, 2012

http://sughayyirahbinaalafaal.wordpress.com/2012/03/20/binaa-al-afaal-16-ifawala-yafawilu/

 

The Types of Transitive Verbs

February 29, 2012

Download the file here:  The Types of Transitive Verbs

Basic Breakdown of Verbs

January 8, 2011

A Basic Breakdown of Verb Conjugations

(Regular verbs, Present tense)

I haven’t seen a book series for learning Arabic which I like better than the Madinah series when it comes to teaching verbs. Knowledge should be organized in such a way that it is easy for the student to memorize. What I have seen time and again is that when many different types of verbs (mujarrad and mazeed, regular and irregular, etc) are all mixed together, the student has a difficult time memorizing the many different conjugations. So this will be a basic breakdown of verb conjugations for regular verbs in the present tense – using this chart from Madinah Book 3 and Binaa al Af’aal as a guide. Irregular verb conjugations can be found here and here. Past tense conjugations can be found here and here . It is important to memorize these forms and patterns little by little. Get a notebook, divide it into sections, organize your verbs a little at a time (for example, memorize all 6 forms of thulaathee mujarrad verbs before you try to memorize thulaathee mazeed), then write out how to conjugate each verb.

Any verb charts included in this explanation are my own. I organized the conjugation in a way which made it easy for me to memorize it. To begin:

A verb is either Rubaa’ee (4 letter root) or Thulaathee (3 letter root).

An example of a Rubaa’ee verb is: بَعْثَرَ

So you would look it up in the Hans Wehr under these 4 letters

[In the Hans Wehr, words are arranged by their roots. Even though this can be more difficult for the student at first, it is more beneficial in its arrangement than the Mawrid (because the student learns how to find words by their roots – thus learning how to identify a word’s root)]

An example of a Thulaathee verb is: ذَهَبَ

So you would look it up in the Hans Wehr under these 3 letters

A Thulaathee verb is either Mujarrad (Bare) or Mazeed (Increased)

The thulaathee verb has 6 mujarrad forms and they are verbs on the patterns of:

  1. كَتَبَ، يَكْتُبُ (middle letter in past tense has fat-hah, in the present tense, the middle letter has dammah)

  2. جَلَسَ، يَجْلِسُ (middle letter in the past tense has fat-hah, in the present tense, the middle letter has kasrah)

  3. ذَهَبَ، يَذْهَبُ (middle letter has fat-hah in the past and present tense)

  4. سَمِعَ، يَسْمَعُ (middle letter in the past tense has kasrah, but in the present tense has fat-hah)

  5. كَثُرَ، يَكْثُرُ (middle letter has dammah in the past and present)

  6. حَسِبَ، يَحْسِبُ (middle letter has kasrah in the past and present)

Forms 5 and 6 are a bit more rare than forms 1-4. In Madinah Book 2, chapter 10, it lists forms 1-4, so this is a good lesson to look at:

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_11.htm

(link updated 7/14/2014)

For verb charts for forms 1-4, look here.

You’ll notice when you look up a word in the Hans Wehr, that it will have a letter beside it. For example, if you wanted to look up درس، then you would see a “u” beside درس. That means that the present tense form of درس has a dammah (or “u” sound) over the middle letter – يَدْرُسُ . So if you see a Thulaathee Mujarrad verb and do not know which of these six ways it is conjugated in the present tense, then look it up in the Hans Wehr. If you see an “a”, this means the middle letter in the present tense has fat-hah, and “i” beside the word means the middle letter in the present tense has kasrah.

The masaadir (ج: مصدر ) of Thulaathee Mujarrad verbs have different patterns, but two common patterns are:

1.فُعُوْلٌ For example: خُرُوْجٌ (leaving), رُكُوْعٌ (bowing), سُجُوْدٌ (prostration)

2.فَعْلٌ and فِعْلٌ and فُعْلٌ For example: دَرْسٌ (lesson), فِعْلٌ (action), شُرْبٌ (drinking)

Forming the أمر (command) is somewhat simple for these verbs:

Take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation of the Thulaathee Mujarrad verb in the present tense, e.g.: يَدْرُسُ

Take off the ي and replace it with hamzatul – wasl (merging hamza): ادْرُسُ

If the middle letter in the present tense has a dammah, then hamzatul wasl will take a dammah: اُدْرُسُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اُدْرُسْ

And that is the command for the masculine singular – Study!

To make it feminine (sg), have the last letter take kasrah and add a ي to it, e.g.: اُدْرُسِي

Now, if the middle letter in the present tense has fat-hah or kasrah, then hamzatul wasl will take kasrah (only) Examples:

يَفْتَحُ

Take off the ي and replace it with ا e.g.: افْتَحُ

If the middle letter has fat-hah or kasrah, the ا (hamzatul wasl) will have kasrah, e.g.: اِفْتَحُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اِفْتَحْ Open! (m.sg)

Do the same thing for يَغْسِلُ

Look at the Madinah lesson (Book 2, dars 14) for further practice:

( http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_15.htm  )

The Thulaathee verb which is Mazeed will be increased by 1 letter, 2 letters or 3 letters

The three forms which are increased by 1 letter:

1.(II)عَلَّمَ، يُعَّلِمُ  (increased by a shaddah – a shaddah letter means two letters are present, one of which has sukoon, e.g.: مَرَّ is really 3 letters – مَ رَ رْ )

2.(III) سَافَرَ، يُسَافِرُ (increased by alif after the first letter)

3.(IV) أَسْلَمَ، يُسْلِمُ  (increased by hamzah [on top of alif] in front of the first letter)

In the Hans Wehr, the definition for verbs increased by shaddah (e.g. علّم ) are listed after Roman numeral II. The definition for verbs increased by an alif after the first letter (سافر ) are listed after Roman numeral III. The definition for verbs increased by a hamzah in front of the first letter (e.g. أسلم ) are listed after Roman numeral IV.

For example, the word قَبلَ . When you look it up in the Hans Wehr, you see:

qabila a

The “a” after “qabila” means that the middle letter in the present tense has fat-hah:

يَقْبَلُ

Then it gives the masdar for the thulaathee mujarrad form ( قَبُوْل or قُبُوْل )

Then it gives the definition of the thulathee mujarrad form: to accept (is one definition). After it lists the definitions for the thulathee mujarrad form, you see II and this is the start of the definitions of the thulathee mazeed forms. II is specifically the definition/s for the root increased by shaddah (like علّم، درّس، etc), which in the case of قبل is: قَبَّلَ

The definition of قبّل is: to kiss

Then you see III and this means it is giving you definitions for the thulaathee mazeed form which is increased by an alif after the first letter (قاتل، سافر etc), which in this case is قَابَلَ . The definition of قابل is : to meet (this is one of the definitions)

After listing all the definitions for form III, then you will see IV which means it is giving definitions for the thulathee mazeed form which is increased by a hamza in front of the first letter (like أسلم، أشرك ). In this case, it is أَقْبَلَ . The definition of أَقْبَلَ is: to approach.

The masaadir for the mazeed forms:

II عَلَّمَ، يُعَلِّمُ، تَعْلِيْمٌ

III قَاتَلَ، يُقَاتِلُ، قِتَالٌ

[This form actually has two masdars – the other is on the form of مُفَاعَلَة like مُقَابَلَةٌ (meeting/appointment)]

IV أَسْلَمَ، يُسْلِمُ، إِسْلَام

 

The Command for these:

For form II, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يُعَلِّمُ

Take off the yaa: عَلِّمُ

Give the last letter sukoon: عَلِّمْ

That is the masculine singular (3rd person) command. To make it feminine singular, add kasrah and yaa: عَلِّمِي

For form III, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation: يُقَاتِلُ

Take off the yaa: قَاتِلُ

Give the last letter sukoon: قَاتِلْ

For form IV, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation: يُسْلِمُ

Take off the yaa and replace it with hamzah (with fat-hah): أَسْلِمُ

Give the last letter sukoon: أَسْلِمْ    (“Aslim” if the kasrah doesnt show under ل )

[Note that this form’s command begins with hamzatul qat’ ( أَ) and not hamzatul wasl ( ا )]

For practice on conjugating these verbs (Mazeed by 1 letter) and the meanings of these forms, go here

The five forms which are increased by 2 letters:

1.(V) تَعَلَّمَ، يَتَعَلَّمُ (which is increased by a shaddah and a taa in the beginning)

2.(VI) تَعَاوَنَ، يَتَعَاوَنُ (which is increased by an alif and a taa in the beginning)

3.(VII) اِنْقَلَبَ، يَنْقَلِبُ (which is increased by an alif and noon in the beginning)

4.(VIII) اِجْتَمَعَ، يَجْتَمِعُ (which is increased by an alif and taa which comes after the first letter)

5.(IX) اِحْمَرَّ ، يَحْمَرُّ(which is increased by an alif and a shaddah on the last letter)

 

{This form is generally used to describe colors and defects. The two examples in Binaa al Af’aal for this form are:

اِحْمَرَّ زَيْدٌ (Zaid turned red) and اِعْوَرَّ زَيْدٌ (Zaid became one-eyed) }

 

The Roman numerals V – IX are representative of where you will find the definition of these forms in the Hans Wehr. So if you wanted to find the meaning of تعاون you would have to look it up by its root. To find its root, you simply take off the two increased letters – taa and alif. This give you the root – عون . So when you look up عون , you look at the definition after VI and you will see the definition of تعاون

If you are looking up definitions and you don’t find certain Roman numerals, e.g. you see a V but not a VII, then that may mean that the word does not have that particular form or it may mean that the dictionary does not have that particular definition in it.

The مصادر for these are formed on the following patterns:

V.تَعَلَّمَ، يَتَعَلَّمُ، تَعَلُّمٌ

VI. تَعَاوَنَ، يَتَعَاوَنُ، تَعَاوُنٌ

VII. اِنْقَلَبَ، يَنْقَلِبُ، اِنْقِلَابٌ

VIII. اِجْتَمَعَ، يَجْتَمِعُ، اِجْتِمَاعٌ

IX. اِحْمَرَّ، يَحْمَرُّ، اِحْمِرَارٌ

Note that forms VII, VIII, and IX begin with hamzatul wasl (the merging hamzah) and not hamzatul qat’ ( أ )

To form the command for form V, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَتَعَلَّمُ

Take off the yaa: تَعَلَّمُ

Give the last letter sukoon: تَعَلَّمْ

To make it feminine singular, add a kasrah and yaa – تَعَلَّمِي

To form the command in form VI, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَتَعَاوَنُ

Take off the yaa: تَعَاوَنُ

Give the last letter sukoon: تَعَاوَنْ

To for the command for form VII, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَنْقَلِبُ

Take off the yaa and replace it with an alif with kasrah: اِنْقَلِبُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اِنْقَلِبْ

 

To form the command in form VIII, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَجْتَمِعُ

Take off the yaa and replace it with an alif with kasrah: اِجْتَمِعُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اِجْتَمِعْ

To form the command in form IX, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَحْمَرُّ

Take off the yaa and replace it with alif with kasrah: اِحْمَرُّ

You can’t give the last letter sukoon (since a shaddah means two letters, one of which already has sukoon, e.g. رُ + رْ and two letters with sukoon cant be beside each other) so the command (masc.sing.) when a verb ends with a double letter takes fat-hah: اِحْمَرَّ

(Which happens to be the same form as the infinitive. This is likewise how you form the command (m.sg) in thulaathee mujarrad verbs with a double letter (i.e. by putting fat-hah on it). For example, صَبَّ – to pour. The command (m.sg) is صُبَّ . Because if you give the last letter sukoon then you will have بْ + بْ and this is not possible. So it takes fat-hah instead. For more on these types of irregular verbs (called muda’af) click on the links for irregular verbs I included in the beginning.)

Note that the command for forms VII, VIII, and IX begin with hamzatul wasl (the merging hamza) and not hamzatul qat’ ( أ )

For practice on conjugating these verbs (Mazeed by 2 letters) and the meanings of these forms, go here

There are four forms which are increased by 3 letters

But I am only going to list one. My intent was not for this to be a long dissertation on verbs, but rather a basic foundation which can be built upon (the other three forms can be found here )

Form X (in the Hans Wehr): اِسْتَعْمَلَ، يَسْتَعْمِلُ which is increased by alif, seen , and taa. To find the definition in Hans Wehr, take off the mazeed letters – است and you have the root – عمل . Once you find the root in Hans Wehr, look at the definitions after number X (Roman numeral 10)

The masdar is formed on the pattern of اِسْتِعْمَالٌ

To form the command, take the 3rd person masculine singular conjugation (present tense): يَسْتَعْمِلُ

Take off the yaa and replace it with alif with kasrah: اِسْتَعْمِلُ

Give the last letter sukoon: اِسْتَعْمِلْ

To make it feminine (singular) add a yaa: اِسْتَعْمِلِي

Thus ends this basic breakdown of verbs. Once you have memorized these forms and patterns, you have a solid foundation in shaa Allah.

 

Some Useful Commands from Thulaathee Mujarrad Verbs

May 17, 2010

The 2nd person masculine singular command generally takes a sukoon on the last letter. Ex: اِجْلِسْ (You m.sg)

The 2nd person feminine singular command has a yaa attached to it. Ex: اِجْلِسِيْ (You f.sg)

The 2nd person masculine plural generally has a wow and alif attached to the last letter. Ex.: اِجْلِسُوا (You m.pl)

The 2nd person feminine plural has a noon attached to it. Ex: اِجْلِسْنَ (You f.pl.)

This chart is for thulaathee mujarrad regular verbs

اِفْعَلِيْ اِفْعَلْ اِجْلِسِيْ اِجْلِسْ
اِفْعَلْنَ اِفْعَلُوا اِجْلِسْنَ اِجْلِسُوا
Do! Sit up!
اُسْكُتِيْ اُسْكُتْ اِذهَبِيْ اِذْهَبْ
اُسْكُتْنَ اُسْكُتُوا اِذْهَبْنَ اِذْهَبُوا
Be quiet! Go!
اِفْتَحِيْ اِفْتَحْ اُخْرُجِيْ اُخْرُجْ
اِفْتَحْنَ اِفْتَحُوا اُخْرُجْنَ اُخْرُجُوا
Open! Leave/Exit!
اِعْلَمِيْ اِعْلَمْ اُقْعُدِيْ اُقْعُدْ
اِعْلَمْنَ اِعْلَمُوا اُقْعُدْنَ اُقْعُدُوا
Know! Sit down!
اُدْرُسِيْ اُدْرُسْ اِقْرَئِيْ اِقْرَأْ
اُدْرُسْنَ اُدْرُسُوا اِقْرَأَنَ اِقْرَؤُوا
Study! Read/Recite!
اِحْفَظِيْ اِحْفَظْ اُكْتُبِيْ اُكْتُبْ
اِحْفَظْنَ اِحْفَظُوا اُكْتُبْنَ اُكْتُبُوا
Memorize Write!
اِغْسِليْ اِغْسِل اِصْبِرِي اِصبِرْ
اِغْسِلْنَ اِغْسِلُوا اِصْبِرْنَ اِصْبِرُوا
Wash! Be patient!
اِخْلَعِيْ اِخْلَعْ اِلْبَسِيْ اِلْبَسْ
اِخْلَعْنَ اِخْلَعُوا اِلْبَسْنَ اِلْبَسُوا
Take off! Put on/Wear!
اُدْخُلِيْ اُدْخُلْ اِنْزِلِي اِنْزِلْ
اُدْخُلْنَ اُدْخُلُوا اِنْزِلْنَ اِنْزِلُوا
Enter! Get down!
اُنْظُرِي اُنْظُرْ اِشْرَبِي اِشْرَبْ
اُنْظُرْنَ اُنْظُرُوا اِشْرَبْنَ اِشْرَبُوا
Look! Drink!
مُرِي مُرْ خُذِيْ1 خُذْ
مُرْنَ مُرُوا خُذْنَ خُذُوا
Command! Take!
هاتِ كُلِي كُلْ
Bring!2 كُلْنَ كُلُوا
Eat!

This chart is for thulaathee mujarrad irregular verbs3 – weak middle letter

تُوْبِيْ تُبْ قُوْلِيْ قُلْ
تُبْنَ تُوْبُوا قُلْنَ قُوْلُوْا
Repent! Say!
قُوْمِيْ قُمْ كُوْنِيْ كُنْ
قُمْنَ قُوْمُوا كُنَّ4 كُوْنُوا
Stand! Be!
سِيْرِيْ سِرْ بِيْعِيْ بِعْ
سِرْنَ سِيْرُوا بِعْنَ بِيْعُوا
Travel/Go! Sell!
نَامِيْ نَمْ نَالِيْ نَلْ
نَمْنَ نَامُوا نَلْنَ نَالُوا
Sleep Obtain!

This chart is for thulathee mujarrad irregular verbs5 – double letter

صُبِّيْ صُبَّ اِسْحَبِي اِسْحَبْ
صُبَبْنَ صُبُّوا اِسْحَبْنَ اِسْحَبُوا
Pour! Pull!
رُدِّيْ رُدَّ عُدِّيْ عُدَّ
رُدَدْنَ رُدُّوا عُدَدْنَ عُدُّوا
Reply/Reject! Count!
مَسِّيْ مَسَّ شَمِّيْ شَمَّ
مَسَسْنَ مَسُّوا شَمَمْنَ شَمُّوا
Touch! Smell!

The masculine singular commands in the above chart should have a fat-hah over the double letter

This chart is for thulaathee mujarrad irregular verbs6 – weak first letter

قِفِيْ قِفْ جِدِيْ جِدْ
قِفْنَ قِفُوا جِدْنَ جِدُوا
Stop! Find!
صِلِيْ صِلْ ضَعِيْ ضَعْ
صِلْنَ صِلُوا ضَعْنَ ضَعُوا
Connect! Put!
قِيْ قِ7 زِنِيْ زِنْ
قِيْنَ قُوا زِنَّ زِنُوا
Save! Weigh!

This chart is for thulaathee mujarrad verbs8 – weak end letter

اِكْوِيْ اِكْوِ اِمْشِيْ اِمْشِ
اِكْوِيْنَ اِكْوُوا اِمْشِيْنَ اِمْشُوا
Iron! Walk!
اِرْمِيْ اِرْمِ اِطْوِيْ اِطْوِ
اِرْمِيْنَ اِرْمُوا اِطْوِيْنَ اِطْوُوا
Throw! Fold!
اُمْحِيْ اُمْحُ اُدْعِيْ اُدْعُ
اُمْحِيْنَ اُمْحُوا اُدْعِيْنَ اُدْعُوا
Erase! Invite/Call!
اِخْشَيْ اِخْشَ اِنْسَيْ اِنْسَ
اِخْشَيْنَ اِخْشَوا اِنْسَيْنَ اِنْسَوا
Fear! Forget

1These 3 verbs are from mahmooz- verbs that have hamzah as a root letter – أخذ and أمر and أكل

2This is a special type of verb, it doesnt have a present tense

3Most verbs taken from Madinah Book 2 chapter 27

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_28.htm

 

4Not to be confused with كنّا (with alif) which means “we were”

5Taken from Madinah Book 2 chapter 29

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_30.htm

 

6 Verbs taken from Madinah Book 2 chapter 26

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_27.htm

 

7From the verb وَقَى which is technically called lafeef- it has two weak letters

8Taken from Madinah Book 2 chapter 28

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_29.htm

 

(links updated 7/14/2014)

In file form : Some Useful Commands 1

Pattern X, irregular, present tense

May 13, 2010

Double letter: pattern X muda’af

Weak middle letter: pattern X weak of ayn

Weak end letter : pattern X weak of lam

Verbs on the pattern of اِسْتَفْعَلَ , regular, present tense

May 12, 2010

Pattern X is gone over in Madinah Book 3, chapter 24

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_10.htm

 

Some of the meaning of this pattern are:

1.Seeking/asking for the root, Ex: اِسْتَعَانَ – to seek help (عون)

2.To consider something/someone to be the root, Ex: اِسْتَعْظَمَ – to consider to be great

For more meanings of this pattern, look at the chart here

Conjugation chart for Pattern X : pattern X saalim