Posts Tagged ‘verbs’

The Four Meanings of جَعَلَ

February 26, 2012

From p.122 in the key of Madinah Book 3 – explanation of ch.25

:has four meanings  جَعَلَThe verb

a) to make, i.e. to cause something to be or to become something.

  In this sense it takes two objects e.g.

سَأَجْعَلُ هَذِهِ الغُرْفَةَ دُكَّانًا

‘I will make this room a shop’

is the first object  الغرفةَ Here

and دكانًاis the second object.

Here are some more examples:

جَعَلَ اللهُ الخَمْرَ حَرَامًا 

ِ‘Allah (God) had made alcoholic drinks haram.’

وَ جَعَلَ القَمْرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا

و جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا

 ‘And He made the moon a light therein, and He made the sun a lamp.’ (Qur’an 71:16)

و لَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً

 ‘And had your Lord so willed He would have made mankind one nation’ (Qur’an 11:118).

b) to think, to deem.

 In this sense also it takes two objects, e.g.,

أَ جَعَلْتَنِي مُدِيرًا؟ ‘Have you made me a headmaster?’, i.e.,

‘Do you think I am a headmaster?’

و جَعَلُوا المَلائِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَحْمَانِ إِنَاثًا

 ‘And they have made the angels, who are servants of Rahman (The Most Merciful, one of Allah’s Names), females’ (Qur’an 43:19),

 i.e. believe they are females. 

 [My note: This belief is refuted in the Qur’an:

And they make the angels who themselves are slaves to the Most Beneficent (Allâh) females. Did they witness their creation? Their evidence will be recorded, and they will be questioned!” (Az-Zukhruf 43:19)

Verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter, name the angels with female names.” (An-Najm 53:27)

Or did We create the angels females while they were witnesses?” (As-Saffat 37:150)

The great scholar of recent times, Imam as-Sa’dee (we ask that God bestow His Mercy upon him) said in explanation of this verse (37:150):

أي: ليس الأمر كذلك، فإنهم ما شهدوا خلقهم، فدل على أنهم قالوا هذا القول، بلا علم، بل افتراء على اللّه،

Meaning: The affair isn’t like that.  For indeed they didn’t witness their (the angels’) creation.  So this shows that they said this statement (the angels are female) without knowledge, on top of that they are lying upon Allah.”)

So the angels are not female.  They are male, but they are not like humans or jinns.  They do not eat, drink, sleep, or have desire.  And they only obey Allah (The Creator) and do not disobey him.  For more on the correct belief about the angels, go here.]

c)  to make, i.e. to create.

  In this sense, it takes only one object, e.g.,

الحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ

والأَرْضَ و جَعَلَ الظُلُمَاتِ والنُّورَ

All praise is for Allah Who created the heavens and the earth, and made darkness and light’ (Qur’an 6:1)

     d) to begin.

  In this sense, it acts like كَانَand has ism and khabar.

 Its khabar is a verbal sentence with the verb in the mudari’, e.g., جَعَلَ حَامِدٌ يَضْرِبُنِي

‘Hamid began beating me. Here حامدis its ism and the sentence يضربني the khabar

(other verbs which act like this are طَفِقَand أَخَذَ, . In the explanation of ch.10 p.44 in the key to book 3, it says:

 

طَفِقَ بِلالٌ يَكْتُبُ‘Bilal began to write.’  طَفِقَis an incomplete verb.

  In this sentence Bilal is its ism, and the sentence يَكتُبُis its khabar.

 The verb in the khabar should be mudari’.

The verbs أَخَذَand جَعَلَare also used in the same way and with the same meaning, e.g.,

أَخَذَ المُدَرِّسُ يَشْرَحُ الدَّرْسَ ‘The teacher began to explain the lesson.’ 

  جَعَلْتُ آكُلُ   ‘I began to eat.’

Here the pronoun تُ is its ism and the sentence  آكُلُ is its khabar. )

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English Translation of Binaa al Af’aal

October 1, 2011

Here: http://sughayyirahbinaalafaal.wordpress.com/

 

 

Verbs on the pattern اِفْعَلَّ present tense

May 11, 2010

Pattern IX is used for colors and defects. Example:

اِحْمَرَّ خَالِدٌ Khaalid turned red (blushed).

اِعْوَجَّ العَصَا The stick became crooked

As for verbs with a weak middle letter (like اعوجّ ) then these are conjugated like regular pattern IX verbs. As for verbs with a weak end letter on this pattern, then I have not encountered one so far. Even though اَعْمَى is a blind person (male), I do not see in the Hans Wehr that it is conjugated in pattern IX. One could say عَمِيَ He was (or became) blind (and this is pattern I).

Likewise with the double letter verbs, I haven’t encountered one that is conjugated on pattern IX yet so I do not know if these are conjugated in pattern IX or not. Though some defects do contain double letters, ex أَصَمُّ is a deaf male, however, I did not see in Hans Wehr that it is conjugated on pattern IX. One could say صَمَّ – he became (or was) deaf – and this is pattern I .

That is not to say that being blind or deaf is a defect, this is simply something that Allah has tested some individuals with. And for those who die as Muslims pleasing their Creator, then He will give them the same as everyone else who enters Paradise (including vision and hearing) in the Next Life. And it is said that the Prophet Shu’aib was blind. Also, the Companion Ibn Umm Maktoom was blind, the late scholar Abdul Azeez Bin Baz was blind and the contemporary living scholar Ubayd al Jaabiree is blind. And it is possible there were some deaf companions and scholars as well, but in my limited knowledge, I haven’t run across that yet. One could ask the Scholars about that.

In Madinah Book 3, chapter 24 (which goes over pattern IX  http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_9.htm ), it also includes the mubalaghah form for pattern IX which is اِحْمَارَّ، يَحْمَارُّ – these are two different patterns – one is increased by two letters (one alif and a double letter) and the other by three (two alifs and a double letter). According to the text of Binaa al-Af’aal, اِحْمَارَّ is the intensive for اِحْمَرَّ (refer to Binaa al- Af’aal for an example ). اِحْمَارَّ is conjugated the exact same way as اِحْمَرَّ (except with an extra alif after the meem in each conjugation : نَحْمَارُّ، تَحْمَارُّوْنَ، تَحْمَارِرْنَ etc),

(the first ر in تحماررن has kasrah)

How to conjugate verbs on pattern IX : pattern IX

Verbs on the pattern of اِفْتَعَلَ present tense

May 11, 2010

For possible meanings of form VIII, look here

Form VIII is covered in Madinah Book 3, chapter 23

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_8.htm

 

Something interesting about form VIII is that when the first letter of the root is a certain letter, then the ت in the pattern اِفْتَعَلَ changes to a different letter. Examples (taken from the above link):

زَحَـمَ ازْدَحَم (إذا كانت فاء افْتَعَل دالاً، أو ذالاً، أو زاياً أبدلِتْ تاؤه دالاً).
When the first root letter is ز or د or ذ then theت changes to د
زَانَ …………………… Form these 3 verbs at left on the pattern of ifta’ala keeping in mind the above rule
ذَكَرَ ……………………
دَعَـا ……………………
صَـبَرَ اصْطَبَرَ (إذا كانت فاءُ افْتَعَلَ صاداً، أو ضَاداً، أو طاءً، أو ظاءً أُبْدِلَتْ تاؤه طاءً).
When the first root letter is aص or ض or ط or ظ then the ت changes to ط
صَفَا …………………  Form these 4 verbs at left on the pattern of ifta’ala keeping in mind the above rule
ضرَبَ …………………
ظَلَـمَ ………………
طَلَـعَ …………………
وَقَـي اتَّقى (إذا كانت فاءُ افْتَعَل واواً أُبدلَتْ تاءً)
]When the first root letter is a و then the و itself changes to ت(so you get two taa’s which looks like taa with shaddah تَّ )
وَصَـلَ ……………………  Form these 3 verbs at left on the pattern of ifta’ala keeping in mind the above rule
وَحَـدَ ……………………
وَفِـقَ ……………………

 

To see how regular verbs are conjugated on this pattern, look at this chart : pattern VIII saalim

Using Lam with irregular verbs

May 6, 2010

To see how lam لم changes irregular verbs, look at how irregular verbs change when they are put in the negative command form

https://sughayyirah.wordpress.com/2010/04/29/negative-commands-for-2nd-person-irregular-verbs/

because lam will do the same thing. This is because in both of these cases (when used in a negative command and when used with lam), the verb becomes majzoom. A very important principle to remember is that two letters with sukoon on them can not be beside each other. If this is going to happen, then one of them is dropped (in the case of the double letter, the last letter takes a fat-hah and NOT a sukoon)

Examples:

We will look at mujarrad muda’af (double letter) verbs first. Example (2nd person present tense of صَبَّ – to pour)

تَصُبُّ you (m.sg) are pouring

تَصُبُّيْنَ you (f.pl) are pouring

تَصُبُّوْنَ you (m.pl) are pouring

تَصْبُبْنَ you (f.pl) are pouring

Note: the 2nd person feminine plural present tense does not change, ever. It is mabny مبني

Now, looking at تَصُبُّ – remember that a letter with shaddah over it is really a double letter, so بّ is really بْ + بُ . So if we put a sukoon on the ending of تصبّ as is usually done in the majzoom case (for singular), two sakin letters will meet:

بْ + بْ and since we are not allowed to do this, we will instead change the dammah to fat-hah to avoid the meeting of two sakin letters:

لا تَصُبَّ Don’t pour! (m.sg)  It is also allowed to separate the doubled letters, e.g.: لا تَصْبُبْ . An example in the Quran is the speech of the chaste mother of the Prophet Jesus – Maryam (Mary):

 قَالَتْ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لِي غُلَامٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِي بَشَرٌ

“She said, ‘How can I have a son when no man has touched me?'”  (3:47) 

It is from the great power and ability of Allah (God) The Lord of the Universe that He can create whatever He wills however He wills.  He created Adam without a mother or a father, He  created Hawwaa (Eve) from Adam’s rib, and in this instance He created the noble Prophet (who is not divine in any way) Jesus without a father.  The verse (3:47) continues:

“He said: “So (it will be) for Allâh creates what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it only: “Be!” and it is.”  (translation of verse from www.thenoblequran.com )

So in this verse we see a muda’af verb مَسَّ  to touch, and it has لم in front of it, so it is made majzoom.  And here the double letters are separated لم يَمْسَسْ 

The other forms of the mujarrad muda’af are easier, we just drop the noon (except for the 2nd person f.pl. – it stays the same):

لا تصبِّيْ Don’t pour! (f.sg)

لا تصبُّوا Don’t pour! (m.pl)

لا تصْبُبْنَ Don’t pour! (f.pl)

[with لم :

لَمْ نَصُبَّ We didn’t pour or لَمْ  نَصْبُبْ

لَمْ يَصُبُّوا They didn’t (m) didn’t pour

لَمْ تَصُبِّيْ You (f.sg) didn’t pour

لَمْ تَصْبُبْنَ You (f.pl) didn’t pour ]

For mazeed (increased) verbs that are muda’af, the same principles apply. Example for أَعِدَّ (wazn IV) – to prepare something

لا تُعِدَّ Don’t prepare! (m.sg)  or لا تُعْدِدْ

لا تُعِدِّيْ Don’t prepare! (f.sg)

لا تُعِدُّوا Don’t prepare! (m.pl)

لا تُعْدِدْنَ Don’t prepare! (f.sg)

[with lam:

لَمْ اُعِدَّ I didn’t prepare or لم أُعْدِدْ

لم تُعِدِّيْ You (f.sg) didn’t prepare

لم يُعِدُّوا They (m) didnt prepare

لم يُعْدِدْنَ They (f) didn’t prepare ]

This is how it is for most of the wazns (patterns). However, patterns II and V of a double letter are conjugated like a regular verb. Example:

حَقَّقَ (whose root is حَقَّ )

لا تُحَقِّقْ Don’t bring about (actualize)….! (m.sg)

لا تَشَدَّدْ Don’t be harsh! (m.sg) (from the root شَدَّ )

[ لم يُحَقِّقْ He didn’t investigate

لم تَحَقَّقْنَ You (f.pl) didn’t verify/confirm ]

As for verbs with a weak middle letter, then we form the negative command thusly:

لا تَقُلْ Don’t say! (m.sg) The wow is dropped to avoid the meeting of two sakin letters (لا تَقُوْلْ )

لا تَقُوْلِيْ Don’t say! (f.sg) The wow is not dropped because there is no meeting of two sakin letters

لا تَقُوْلُوا Don’t say! (m.pl) The wow is not dropped because there is no meeting of two sakin letters

لا تَقُلْنَ Don’t say! (f.pl) The wow is dropped to avoid the meeting of two saakin letters (لا تَقُوْلْنَ )

[لَمْ أَقُلْ I didn’t say

لم تَقُوْلِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t say

لم يَقُلْنَ They (f) didn’t say

لم يَقُوْلُوا They (m) didn’t say]

Apply this principle to each of the three types of weak middle letter verbs for the mujarrad (bare):

لا تَنَمْ Don’t sleep! (m.sg) The weak middle letter- in this case it is alif- is dropped (لا تَنَاْمْ )

لا تَبِعْ Don’t sell! (m.sg) The weak middle letter- yaa- is dropped (لا تَبِيْعْ )

[لَمْ أنَمْ I didn’t sleep, لَمْ يَبِيْعُوا They (m) didn’t sell – yaa is not dropped here because there is no meeting of 2 sakin letters ]

The same principle applies for mazeed (increased) verbs with a weak middle letter (except for wazns II and V which form the negative command like a regular verb). Example is the wazn IV verb أشَارَ ، يُشِيْرُ to point:

لا تُشِرْ Don’t point! (m.sg) Yaa is dropped (لا تُشِيْرْ )

لا تُشِيْرِيْ Don’t point! (f.sg) Noon is dropped

لا تُشِيْرُوا Don’t point! (m.pl) Noon is dropped

لا تُشِرْنَ Don’t point (f.pl) No change  ( the present tense  تُشِرْنَ was تُشِيْرْنَ but a yaa was dropped because of the meeting of the two sakin letters)

[لَمْ نُشِرْ We didn’t point

لَمْ تُشِيْرِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t point

لم تُشِيْرُوا You (m.pl) didn’t point

لم يُشِرْنَ They (f) didn’t point ]

As for verbs with a weak last letter, then the negative command for them is formed thusly:

لا تَبْكِ Don’t cry (m.sg) Yaa was dropped (from تَبْكِيْ )

لا تَبْكِيْ Don’t cry (f.sg) Noon was dropped (from تَبْكِيْنَ ) as is the normal case for 2nd person feminine singular

لا تَبْكُوا Don’t cry (m.pl) Noon was dropped ( from تَبْكُوْنَ ) as is the normal case for 2nd person masculine plural

لا تَبْكِيْنَ Don’t cry (f.pl) No change, as is normal for the 2nd person f. pl.

[ لم أَبْكِ I didn’t cry

لم تَبْكِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t cry

لم يَبْكُوا They (m) didn’t cry

لم يَبْكِيْنَ They (f) didn’t cry ]


Apply the same principle to all three types of weak end letter verbs which are mujarrad (bare):

لا تَنْسَ Don’t forget! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from لا تَنْسَى )

لا تَنْسَيْ Don’t forget! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَنْسَوا Don’t forget! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَنْسَيْنَ Don’t forget! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

[لَمْ أَنْسَ I didn’t forget ( from أنْسَى )

لم تَنْسَيْ You (f.sg) didn’t forget

لم يَنْسَوا They (m) didn’t forget

لم يَنْسَيْنَ They (f) didn’t forget ]

لا تَشْكُ Don’t complain! (m.sg) Dropped the wow (from تَشْكُوْ )

لا تَشْكِيْ Don’t complain! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُوا Don’t complain! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُوْنَ Don’t complain! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

[لَمْ أَشْكُ I didn’t complain (from أشكُوْ )

لم تَشْكِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t complain

لم يَشْكُوا They (m) didn’t complain

لَم يَشْكُوْنَ They (f) didn’t complain ]

Review weak middle and end letter conjugations for mujarrad verbs in chapters 27 and 28 of Madinah Book 2

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_29.htm  (ch. 28)

Apply the same principles to mazeed (increased ) verbs (including wazns II and V ). For سَمَّى، يُسَمِّيْ (II) to name/call

لا تُسَمِّ Don’t name! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تُسَمِّيْ )

لا تُسَمِّيْ Don’t name! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تُسَمُّوا Don’t name! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تُسَمِّيْنَ Don’t name! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

[ لَمْ أُسَمِّ I didn’t name

لَم تُسَمِّيْ You (f.sg) didn’t name

لم يُسَمُّوا They (m) didn’t name

لم يُسَمِّيْنَ They (f) didn’t name ]

تَغَدَّى، يَتَغَدَّى (V) to have lunch

لا تَتَغَدَّ Don’t have lunch! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تَتَغَدَّى )

لا تَتَغَدَّيْ Don’t have lunch! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَتَغَدَّوا Don’t have lunch! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَتَغَدَّيْنَ Don’t have lunch! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

All the daals د in the above forms have fat-hah.

[لَم أَتَغَدَّ I didn’t have lunch

لم تَتَغَدَّيْ You (f.sg) didn’t have lunch

لم يَتَغَدَّوا They (m) didn’t have lunch

لم يَتَغَدَّيْنَ They (f) didn’t have lunch

 All of the daals in the above forms should have fat-hah ]

اِشْتَرَى،يَشْتَرِيْ (VIII) to buy

لا تَشْتَرِ Don’t buy! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تَشْتَرِيْ ) raa has kasrah

لا تَشْتَرِيْ Don’t buy! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْتَرُوا Don’t buy! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْتَرِيْنَ Don’t buy! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

[ لَمْ أَشْتَرِ I didn’t buy

لم تَشْتَرِيْ You (f.sg) didn’t buy

لم يَشْتَرُوا They (m) didn’t buy

لم يَشْتَرِيْنَ They (f) didn’t buy ]

Verbs on the pattern تَفَاعَلَ present tense

May 4, 2010

From the meanings of form VI are:

1.The mutual participation of an action, Ex. : تَعَاوَنَ to help each other

2.Pretending, Ex. : تَنَاوَمَ to pretend to sleep

For more meanings, see the chart here

In the conjugations which have two taa’s, you can drop one of the taa’s ( و لا تَعَاوَنُوا “And don’t help each other upon sin and transgression” 5:2 ta’aawanu, from تَتَعَاوَنُوا )

Click on the following file to learn its conjugation pattern VI saalim

Madinah Book 3, lesson 22 covers this pattern:

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du4_6.htm