Archive for April, 2010

Negations in the Nominal Sentence

April 29, 2010

There are two particles of negation in the nominal sentence (in general):

ما and لَيْسَ

ما and ليس can be used in two ways.

1.With بِ :

ما أنَا بِطَالِبٍ I am not a student.

لَسْتُ بِطَالِبٍ I am not a student.

2.Without بِ in which case the word that word normally have بِ is mansoob instead:

ما هُوَ طَالِباً He is not a student

لَيْسَ طَالِباً He is not a student

Other examples of ليس and ما :

ما عِنْدِي كتابٌ         I don’t have a book

و ما اللهُ بغافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُوْنَ  

“And God is not unaware of what you (pl) do”2:74 Qur’an

ليْسَ عَلَيْكُم جُنَاحٌ         “There is no sin on you…” 2:198 Qur’an

فَلِمَ تُحَاجُّونَ فِيمَا لَيْسَ لَكُمْ بِهِ عِلْمٌ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَ

“So why do you argue about a thing in which you have no knowledge?  And God knows and you don’t know” 3:66 Qur’an

Forms of Laisa :

   حامدٌ طالبٌ.

حامدٌ لَيْسَ بِطالبٍ.

   الطلابُ صِغارٌ.

الطلابُ لَيْسُوْا بِصغارٍ.

   آمنةُ طبيبةٌ.

 آمنةُ لَيْسَتْ بِطبيبةٍ.

   الفَتَياتُ مُتزِّوجاتٌ.

 

 الفتياتُ لَسْنَ بِمتزوجاتٍ

.

   أنتَ كبيرٌ.

(أنت) لَسْتَ بِكبيرٍ.

   أنتم جُدُدٌ.

 (أنتم) لَسْتُمْ بِجُدُدٍ.

   أنتِ فقيرةٌ.

(أنتِ) لَسْتِ بِفقيرةٍ.

    أنتنَّ مُجتهداتٌ

 

.

 (أنتنّ) لَسْتُنَّ بِمجتهداتٍ.

    أنا مدرسٌ.

 (أنا) لَسْتُ بِمدرسٍ.

   نحن طلابٌ .

 (نحن) لَسْنَا بِطلابٍ.

From Madinah Book 2 chapter 2

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_3.htm

 

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Negating the past and present tense

April 29, 2010

 

To express a negation in the past tense, put ما in front of the past tense verb. Examples:

مَا فَعَلْتُ شيْئاً I did not do anything

ما أكَلْتَ شَيْئاً You (m.sg) did not eat anything

ما كَسَرَ شَيْئاً He did not break anything

To express a negation in the present tense, put لا in front of the present tense verb (the ending of the verb does not change in this case). Examples

لا أفْهَمُ I don’t understand

لا اُرِيْدُ I don’t want

لا ألْعَبُ I don’t play

Sometimes ما is used with the present tense. Example:

ما يَنبَغِي لهم و ما يَسْتَطِعُونَ

And the devils have not brought it (the Qur’an) down, it does not befit them to do so and additionally they do not have the ability” 26:210-211 from the Qur’an

I want to….I like to…etc

April 29, 2010

To say something like “I want to go…”
1. First we put “I want”:

أُرِيْدُ

2. Next we add أنْ (that)

 3. Then we add the same conjugation of the next verb we want to use, which in this case will be: “I go” أَذْهَبُ

 4. After that we will change the dammah on the end of أذهب to a fat-hah because of the أن that comes before it so it will become: أَذْهَبَ

The resulting sentence is:

أُرِيْدُ أنْ أَذْهَبَ

which is literally, “I want that I go” but we would translate it as “I want to go”

 

To say “I like to study”, start with “I like” أُحِبُّ

then add أنْ  (so now you have: أُحِبُّ أَنْ )

then add “I study” (remembering to make the second verb mansoob due to the أَنْ): أَدْرُسَ

The result is:

 

أُحِبُّ أنْ أدْرُسَ

I like to study

 

You can also use different pronouns together.  For Example:

 

أُرِيْدُ أنْ تَغْسِلِيْ المَلَابِسَ

I want you (f) to wash the clothes.

 

هَلْ يُرِيْدُ أَنْ أَكْتُبَ

Does he want me to write? (Lit: Does he want that I write)

 

نُرِيْدُ أَنْ يَذْهَبُوا

We want them (m) to leave. (Lit : we want that they leave)

How to conjugate the verbs to like and to want:

Download the file from here: to like to want

Commands and Negative Commands, 1st & 3rd person

April 29, 2010

To form the command for the third person, you do two things to the 3rd person verb conjugation:

1.Make it majzoom (which for regular verbs is going to mean putting a sukoon on it in the singular and for the conjugation for “we”, and dropping the noon from the masculine plural and the feminine singular. The feminine plural does not change [For irregular verbs in a state of majzoom, go here])

2.Put a lam with kasrah لِ in front of it

Example:

لِيذهبْ الطلابُ الجددُ إلى المدير، ولْيرجِعوا بعد مُقَابَلَتِهِ

Let the new students go to the Principal and return after meeting with him

 

If و or ف comes in front of the 3rd person command, then the lam takes a sukoon, not kasrah. Example:

لِيَدْخُلْ وَلْيَجْلِسْ

Let him enter and sit

لامُ الأمر The laam of command can also be applied to the first person (i.e. we). Example:

لِنَجْلِسْ مَعاً

Let’s sit together

Examples of Negative Commands with the Laam of Command

لا يَسْخَرْ أحَدٌ مِنْ أحَدٍ

Let no one make fun of another

And in the hadeeth:

لا تُسَافِرْ المَرْأَةُ ثلاثةَ أيامٍ إلاّ مَعَ ذِي مَحْرَمً

Let no woman travel three days except with her Mahram” (Bukhari)

For more examples, see Madinah Book 3, chapter 13

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du3_14.htm

 

Negative commands for irregular verbs, 2nd person

April 29, 2010

To form the negative command for 2nd person with irregular mujarrad (bare) verbs, you will do two things:

1.Put لا in front of the 2nd person present tense

2.Make the ending majzoom

One of the main principles with irregular verbs is the principle that two sakin letters (letters with sukoon) can NOT be beside each other. Whenever this will be the case, one of the sakin letters is dropped.

We will look at mujarrad muda’af (double letter) verbs first. Example (2nd person present tense of صَبَّ – to pour)

تَصُبُّ you (m.sg) are pouring

تَصُبُّيْنَ you (f.pl) are pouring

تَصُبُّوْنَ you (m.pl) are pouring

تَصْبُبْنَ you (f.pl) are pouring

Note: the 2nd person feminine plural present tense does not change, ever.

Now, looking at تَصُبُّ – remember that a letter with shaddah over it is really a double letter, so بّ is really بْ + بُ . So if we put a sukoon on the ending of تصبّ as is usually done in the majzoom case (for singular), two sakin letters will meet:

بْ + بْ and since we are not allowed to do this, we will instead change the dammah to fat-hah to avoid the meeting of two sakin letters:

لا تَصُبَّ Don’t pour! (m.sg)

The other forms are easier, we just drop the noon:

لا تصبِّيْ Don’t pour! (f.sg)

لا تصبُّوا Don’t pour! (m.pl)

لا تصْبُبْنَ Don’t pour! (f.pl)

And the feminine plural does not change, as we mentioned, but notice how the double letter comes apart just like in some of the past tense forms (like صَبَبْتُ – I poured)

For mazeed (increased) verbs that are muda’af, the same principles apply. Example for أَعِدَّ (wazn IV) – to prepare something

لا تُعِدَّ Don’t prepare! (m.sg)

لا تُعِدِّيْ Don’t prepare! (f.sg)

لا تُعِدُّوا Don’t prepare! (m.pl)

لا تُعْدِدْنَ Don’t prepare! (f.sg)

This is how it is for most of the wazns (patterns). However, patterns II and V of a double letter are conjugated like a regular verb. Example:

حَقَّقَ (whose root is حَقَّ )

لا تُحَقِّقْ Don’t bring about (actualize)….! (m.sg)

لا تَشَدَّدْ Don’t be harsh! (m.sg) (from the root شَدَّ )

As for verbs with a weak middle letter, then we form the negative command thusly:

لا تَقُلْ Don’t say! (m.sg) The wow is dropped to avoid the meeting of two sakin letters (لا تَقُوْلْ )

لا تَقُوْلِيْ Don’t say! (f.sg) The wow is not dropped because there is no meeting of two sakin letters

لا تَقُوْلُوا Don’t say! (m.pl) The wow is not dropped because thereis no meeting of two sakin letters

لا تَقُلْنَ Don’t say! (f.pl) The wow is dropped to avoid the meeting of two saakin letters (لا تَقُوْلْنَ )

Apply this principle to each of the three types of weak middle letter verbs for the mujarrad (bare):

لا تَنَمْ Don’t sleep! (m.sg) The weak middle letter- in this case it is alif- is dropped (لا تَنَاْمْ )

لا تَبِعْ Don’t sell! (m.sg) The weak middle letter- yaa- is dropped (لا تَبِيْعْ )

The same principle applies for mazeed (increased) verbs with a weak middle letter (except for wazns II and V which form the negative command like a regular verb). Example is the wazn IV verb أشَارَ ، يُشِيْرُ to point:

لا تُشِرْ Don’t point! (m.sg) Yaa is dropped (لا تُشِيْرْ )

لا تُشِيْرِيْ Don’t point! (f.sg) Noon is dropped

لا تُشِيْرُوا Don’t point! (m.pl) Noon is dropped

لا تُشِرْنَ Don’t point (f.pl) No change  ( the present tense  تُشِرْنَ was تُشِيْرْنَ but a yaa was dropped because of the meeting of the two sakin letters)

As for verbs with a weak last letter, then the negative command for them is formed thusly:

لا تَبْكِ Don’t cry (m.sg) Yaa was dropped (from تَبْكِيْ )

لا تَبْكِيْ Don’t cry (f.sg) Noon was dropped (from تَبْكِيْنَ ) as is the normal case for 2nd person feminine singular

لا تَبْكُوا Don’t cry (m.pl) Noon was dropped ( from تَبْكُوْنَ ) as is the normal case for 2nd person masculine plural

لا تَبْكِيْنَ Don’t cry (f.pl) No change, as is normal for the 2nd person f. pl.


Apply the same principle to all three types of weak end letter verbs which are mujarrad (bare):

لا تَنْسَ Don’t forget! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from لا تَنْسَى )

لا تَنْسَيْ Don’t forget! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَنْسَوا Don’t forget! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَنْسَيْنَ Don’t forget! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُ Don’t complain! (m.sg) Dropped the wow (from تَشْكُوْ )

لا تَشْكِيْ Don’t complain! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُوا Don’t complain! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْكُوْنَ Don’t complain! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

Review weak middle and end letter conjugations for mujarrad verbs in chapters 27 and 28 of Madinah Book 2

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/du2_29.htm

 

Apply the same principles to mazeed (increased ) verbs (including wazns II and V ). For سَمَّى، يُسَمِّيْ (II) to name/call

لا تُسَمِّ Don’t name! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تُسَمِّيْ )

لا تُسَمِّيْ Don’t name! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تُسَمُّوا Don’t name! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تُسَمِّيْنَ Don’t name! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

تَغَدَّى، يَتَغَدَّى (V) to have lunch

لا تَتَغَدَّ Don’t have lunch! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تَتَغَدَّى )

لا تَتَغَدَّيْ Don’t have lunch! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَتَغَدَّوا Don’t have lunch! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَتَغَدَّيْنَ Don’t have lunch! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

All the daals د in the above forms have fat-hah.

 

اِشْتَرَى،يَشْتَرِيْ (VIII) to buy

لا تَشْتَرِ Don’t buy! (m.sg) Dropped the yaa (from تَشْتَرِيْ ) raa has kasrah

لا تَشْتَرِيْ Don’t buy! (f.sg) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْتَرُوا Don’t buy! (m.pl) Dropped the noon, as is the normal case

لا تَشْتَرِيْنَ Don’t buy! (f.pl) No change, as is the normal case

Madinah Books (Arabic only)

April 29, 2010

 

http://old.iu.edu.sa/spages/edu/syukbah/syukbah.htm

 

Books used at Ummul Qura

April 29, 2010

http://uqu.edu.sa/page/ar/51607

Understanding Laysa

April 29, 2010

understanding laysa

Understanding am and aw

April 29, 2010

understanding am and aw

The 5 nouns

April 29, 2010

the five nouns